(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Memoirs ... Entomological series"

February 1923 Entomological Series VoL VII, No. 11 . 



tftemoirs of Che 

Department or Agriculture 

in India 



&■ 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTEI 



MORGAN HEBARD 




DIEU t~\ET MONT") PR 6 1 
«J !» ' 8>3 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

I'HE YS\ \ [XD 



Price, Re. 1-4 or 1« 9c/ 







Edited 

The Council Pusa Agricultural Research Institute, 

wbici responsible for the opinions 

e. v the Men 



/< i bruary 1928 



Entomological Series 



Vol VII, No. 11 



MEMOIRS OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

IN INDIA 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTEKA 



BY 

MORGAN HEBARD 



•' S£ 







n~ die, li J ~[kt monJ — f pkoFtj i 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PUSA 

PRINTED AM' PUBLISHED FOR 

THE IMPERIAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN IX DI 1 



m 



TH ACKER, SPINLv & CO., CALCUTTA 
W. THACKEE & CO., 2, Crked Lane, LONDON 



Agents for the Sale of Government Publications 



IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 



Constable ><t Co.. 1U, Orange Street, Leicester 

Squ.ve, London, W.C. 
Kegan Faul, Trench Triibner & Co., 68-74, 

Carter Lane, E.C.. and 39, New Oxford 

Street, London, W.C. 
Bernard Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New 

Bond Street, London, W. 
P. S. King & Sons, 2 and 4, Great Smith Street, 

Westminster, London, S.W. 
H. S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, E.C., and 

Pall Mall, London, W. 
Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament Street, 

London, S.W. 
T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd., 1, Adelphi Terrace, 

London, W.C. 



W. Thacker & Co., 2, Creed Lane, London, 
B.C. 

Luzac & Co., 46. Great Russell Stieet' 
London, W.C. 

Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd., 28, Essex Street, 
London, W.C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 and 51, Broad Street, 
Oxford. 

Deighton, Bell & Co., Ltd., Cambridge. 

Oliver & Boyd, Tweedale Court. Edin- 
burgh. 

E. Ponsonby, Ltd,, 116, Grafton Street, 
Dublin. 



ON THE CONTINENT 



Ernest Leroiix. i*, Hue Honaparte, Paris. 
MartiiuiN Nijholf, The Hague, Holland. 



Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 
Friedlander and Sohn, Berlin. 



IN INDIA AND CEYLON 



Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta and 

Simla. 
W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 
R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 
S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 
B. Banerjee & Co., Calcutta. 
The Indian School Supply Depot, 309, Bow 

Bazar Stieet, Calcutta, and 226, Nawabpur, 

Dacca. 
Butterworth <fc Co (India), Limited, Calcutta. 
The Weldon Library, 18-5, Chowringhee 

Road, Calcutta. 
Rai M. C. Sircar Bahadur and Sons, 75-1-1, 

Harrison Road, Calcutta. 
Standard Literature Co., Ltd., Calcutta. 
Lai Chand and Sons, Calcutta. 
Association Press, Calcutta. 
Higginbothams, Ltd., Madras. 
V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 
G. A. Natesan & Co., Madras. 
S. Murthy & Co., Madras, 
Thompson & Co., Madraf. 
Temple & Co., Madras, 
P. R, Rama Iyer & Co., Madias. 
Vas * Co., Madias. 
E. M. Gopalkrishna Kone, Madras. 
Thacker & Co., Ltd., Bombay, 



D. B. Taraporevala, Sou & Co., Bombay. 
Radhabai Atmaram Sagoon, Bombay. 
Sunder Pandurang, Bombay. 
Gopal Narayan & Co., Bombay. 
Ramchandra Govind & Son, Kalbadevi, 

Bombay- 
Proprietor, New Kitabkhana, Poona. 
The Standard Bookstall, Karachi. 
Mangaldas Harkisandas, Surat. 
Karsandas Narandas & Sons, Surat. 
A. H. Wheeler & Co., Allahabad, Calcutta 

and Bombay. 
N. B-Mathur, Superintendent, Nazir Kanun-i- 

Hind Press, Allahabad. 
Munshi Seeta Ram, Managing Proprietor, 

Indian Army Book Depot, Juhi, Cawnpore. 
Rama Krishana and Sons, Lahore. 
Kai Sahib M. Gulab Singh & Sons, Mufid-i- 

Ara Press, Lahore. 
Superintendent. American Baptist Mission 

Press, Rangoon. 
Manager the " Hitavada," Nagpur. 
S. C. Talukdar, Proprietor, Students and 

Company, Cooch Behar. 
A. M. A J a Ferguson, Colombo, Ceylon,, 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA. 

BY 

MORGAN HEBARD. 

[Received for publication on the l"th .March 1022.] 

Recently, all of the undetermined Dermaptera belonging to the Agricul- 
tural Research Institute at Pusa, Bihar. India, were sent to us for study by th< 
Imperial Entomologist, Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Through his kindness 
the author has been permitted to retain the holotypes and unique specimens, 
returning a second set of the material to that Institution. 

To the collection to be studied was added material belonging to the author, 
received from Father C. Leigh, S.J., of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly 
and from Mr. Andrew Prabala Nathan of Coimbatore, as well as a few specimens 
belonging to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge aehusel 

The total forms a larger and more varied Indian series of earwigs than has been 
studied since Burr prepared his report on Dermaptera for the Fauna of British 
India. 

A great number of localities are represented, evidently situated in many 
very distinct life zones. It appears, however, that no single locality has 
yielded more than a small percentage of the total number of forms which thi 
almost certainly occur. This is partially owing to the fact that the collecting 
of Dermaptera is difficult, due to the secretive habits of the majority of the 
species and the great diversity of habitat. 

Certain specie- are to be found only under moisl bark, other- under stones 
still others in flowers and some in the seed pods of plants or under decaying 
fruit. Many species are. moreover, comparatively scarce. These factors have 
resulted, as is usual, in many of the species being represented by uniques or 
but one or two specimens in the collections before us. Some species howevi 
come to light and it has often been found more easy to secure large series there 
than by searching for them in their normal habitat. 

Three hundred and ninety-two specimens are here recorded. These 
represent twenty-nine genera and forty-four species, of which two genera and 
ten species are described as new. Burr has reported, in all, forty-two a 

( 195 ) 1 



L96 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

1 ninety-five species, now recognized as valid, from this territory (which 
does not include Ceylon or Burma), the present paper bringing the total to 
fori v-l'our genera and one hundred and eight species. One of the new species 
her lescribed is not included in this total as it is from Burma. Ceylon and 
Burma are very rich in Dermaptera, as is shown by the fact that Burr, including 
these regions in the Fauna of British India, there records fifty-one genera and 
one hundred and thirty-three species, to which total several subsequent addi- 
tions have been made. 

The territory covered is so vast and varied that it is probable that many 
undescribed species will still be found. The student must consider undeter- 
mined material, however, with exceptional care, owing to the great variability 
shown by certain species. 

In the preparation of the present paper we have been particularly interested 
in finding that the contrast between the brachylabic and macrolabic phases of 
certain species is not only manifested by differences in the male forceps but 
also by changes in the pygidium, ultimate tergite and even by slight differences 
of proportion in the pronotum as well. As a result, the contrast between the 
phases developed in such species as Labidura riparia, Exypnus koorgensis, 
Proreus melanocephalus, Forficula schlagintweiti, Forficala acris and others* 
would easily lead one to suppose that in each case two very distinct species 
were represented. Consideration of the sum total of characters and, in some 
cases, intergradation proven by large series, has made possible the proper 
association of the extremes developed in these species. 

We have found that, for the majority of the described species, very few 
and inaccurate measurements have been given. We have, therefore, in the 
present study, given the essential measurements for many of the less well- 
known or variable species. These measurements have been taken with the 
aid of a micrometer. This we find the only safe method of securing measure- 
ments sufficiently accurate to show the actual proportions of insects as small as 
are many of the earwigs. 

DERMAPTERA. 

PYGIDICRANID,E. 

DlPLATYiN,E. 

Diplatys bicoloripes, new species. (Plate XIX. figs. I and 2.) 

This species is closely related to D. gladiator Burr, described from Calcutta 
[and also recorded from Chota Nagpur and Coimbatore. T. B. F.J. It agrees 



MORGAN HEBARD [97 

iii having abortive wings, concealed by the tegmina, which are no longer than 
the width across their shoulders: in the general cephalic contour; in the 
strongly dilated ultimate tergite of the male, and the depressed and dilated 
male Eorceps. 

It differs in the strikingly bicolored Eemora, the appreciably concave 
distal margin of the penultimate sternite and in the forceps, which arc quite a.- 
strongly bowed as in D. jalcatus Burr. 

Ln the present insect the forceps have the dorsal surf ace proximad, low. ml 
the external margin, produced dorsad in a stout conical projection ; a feature 
not mentioned in the descriptions of the two species to which it clearly shows 
nearest relationship. 

Type : male ; Nagpur, Central Provinces, India ; 17th January 1919. 
(Y. P. Rao.) [Hebard Collection, Type No. 772.] 

Size small, form slender, with distal extremity of abdomen much enlarged : 
as in gladia'or. Head decidedly wider than pronotum. slightly wider than width 
across tegminal shoulders : postocular keels weak, sutures distinct, a weak 
ridge present on each side of median suture ; occiput flattened, but not at all 
concave. Antennas with 19 segments, third segment three-quarters as long 
a- the short first segment, fourth about three-quarters as long as third, fifth 
intermediate in length between these. 

Pronotum very slightly longer than wide ; lateral margins convex and 
converging very slightly caudad, caudal margin truncate and rounding broadly 
into the lateral margins ; prozona flattened convex, showing a linear medio- 
longitudinal sulcus, remaining portions depressed. Large scutellum exposed. 
Tegmina short, rounded distad : wings rudimentary. 

Abdomen with distinct stink glands, eighth and ninth tergites widening 
in strongly increasing ratio. Tenth (ultimate) tergite very ample, smooth. 
roughly hexagonal : lateral margins weakly concave in proximal half, thence 
weakly convex (sometimes sinuous) to the depressed and rectangulai latero- 
caudal angle- : caudal margin with lateral portions weakly oblique convergent 
and showing weak concavity to median third, that portion transverse and 
weakly concave, the two projections thus formed very bluntly rounded. 

Pygidium directed ventro-cephalad. so that its rounded apes lies between 
the bases of the forceps. Forceps broad and strongly depressed proximad, 
forming on the internal margin a heavy and very blunt tooth, the forceps 
attingent only at this point, thence tapering and arcuate so as to enclose a 
spade-shaped area which isTbroader than long. The internal margins of the 
forceps are ot herwisc'nnarmed . r t he dorsal surface of each arm proximad 
near the external margin produced dorsad in a stout conical projection. 






STUDIES IN INDIAN DEEMAPTEKA 



Penultimate stemite with lateral margins convergent distad, rounding into 
tin- rather broad distal portion, which is weakly concave, showing faint 



angulation. 
















Measurements (in millimeters). 








Length of 
body 


Length of 
pronotum 


Greatest 

width of 

pronotum 


Length of 
tegmen 


Length of 
forceps. 


Greatest 

diameter 

of forceps 


Males — 














Type 


9-1 


1-43 


1-43 


1-75 


1-56 


0-95 


Paralype 


9-4 


1-43 


1-45 


1-65 


1-56 


0-92 


Paratype 


9-7 


1-43 


1-41 


1 72 


1-40 


0-95 



Coloration. Type (recessive). Head blackish brown, shading to prout's 
brown on occiput. Antennae yellowish, becoming slightly darker distad. 
Pronotum warm buff, the prozonal portion buckthorn brown, tinged with 
blackish brown latero-cephalad. Tegmina blackish brown. Abdomen dorsad 
tawny, becoming russet proximad and there suffused with blackish brown in 
lateral portions. Forceps warm buff, becoming tawny in distal portions. 
Limbs warm buff, the femora this color in proximal two-fifths and distal fifth, 
remaining two-fifths of femora blackish brown, in striking contrast. The 
homologous portions of the cephalic and median tibiae show a clouding on their 
dorsal surfaces of brown. Ventral surface buffy, except on abdomen where 
it is ochraceous-tawny. In the generally darker paratypes the prozona and 
meso-caudal portion of the metazona is prout's brown, shading to mummy 
brown latero-cephalad on the prozona. 

In addition to the type of this handsome species, two paratypic males and 
an immature individual are before us, which bear the same data. 

Diplaiys lefroyi Burr. 

1910. Diplatys lefroyi Burr. Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 44, PL I. 
figs. 5 and 5a. [ <$ : Belgaum, S. Bombay ; Shencottah, Travancore.] [Also 
recorded from Coimbatore, T. B. F.] 

Bassein Fort, Bombay, Bombay Presidency, IX, 1909 (A. Mujtaba), 
two males. 

The limb coloration is not carefully described for this species. In the 
present specimens the cephalic and median tibiae and cephalic femora are dark 
brown, becoming yellowish only at the immediate extremities, the cauda 



MORGAN HEBAHD L99 

tibiae being similar, but becoming paler more extensively distad. The median 
and caudal femora are yellowish in aboul the proximal third and in a brie! 
distal portion, the intervening area being strikingly contrasted in blackish 
brow u. 

' PyGIDKI; .WIN I.. 

Burr's original geiuTn- a naugriiifut of t In.* Indian species of this group is 
clearly faulty 1 . His rearrangement of these species in his genitalic study 2 , 
synonymizing Pyge and erecting a new genus Acrania, is apparently more satis- 
factory. As elsewhere in thai paper, however, we feel that the external 
structure shouj^ have been much more thoroughly studied and that tin- 
characters of the metaparaiueres and virga should have been added to a 
genera] description of the external morphology in separating the genera, 
particularly in the case of the genus described as new. 

Acrania picta (Guerin). 

L838. Pygidicrana picta Guerin, Mag. de Zool., VIII, PI. 236, fig. 1, 

p. 70. [ 9 ; Madras.] Sidapur, Coorg. 31st October 1917 (T. K. Naganathan), 
one female. 

In the present specimen the central oblique tegminal stripe extends 
unbroken to near the apex of the tegmen. 

Length of body 18, length of pronotum 2*9, length of tegmen 5, exposed 
length of wing 17, length of forceps 5 mm. 

Cranopygia raja (Burr). 

1911. Kalocrania raja Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), \ II. 
p. 773. [ •■. Xilgin Hills. 6,000 feet.] 

Kodaikanal. Madras Presidency, l ( .»20 (C.Leigh), one male, one large 
juv. 

The original description of the Burmese type of C. valida (l)ohm) :: shows 
that in the type there is quite as much reduction in the organs of flight as 
in the present specimen. From Burr's comments on valida* and the presenl 
insect, it would appear that very decided individual variation in tl 
development of these parts occurs in both of these species. 

The features of difference in coloration, ultimate male tergite and forceps, 
we believe, fully justify considering raja a distinct species. 

Fauna Br. India. Dermaptera, p. 53 (1910). 
* Jour. R. Microsc. Soc, 1915, p. 430 (1915). 

5 " Ent.Zeit, XXVIII, p. 344 (1867). 
4 Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 56 (1910). 



STUDIES IN [NDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Length of body 277, length of pronotum 4, width of pronotum 3'8, 
length of tegmen 6, length of forceps 7"2 mm. 

Cranopygia pluto, new species. (Plate XX, figure 18.) 

This large and sombre insect shows, in the maie sex, asymmetrical type of 
forceps which differs widely from that of any other species of the 
Pygidicraninae known to us. 

Type : male ; Chin Hills, Burma, 1909 (Venning). [Hebard Collection, 
Type No. 775.] 

Size large, form robust, the abdomen widening very strongly distad. 
Antenna? with first segment equal to combined length of second to fifth seg- 
ments, second segment two-thirds as long as third, third with length one and 
one-half times its width, fourth slightly broader than long, fifth slightly longer 
than broad. Head with sutures sub-obsolete, frons and lateral portions of 
occiput flattened and showing very feeble convexity ; caudal margin of 
occiput straight, transverse ; eye slightly longer than cheek. 

Pronotum distinctly narrower than head, slightly longer than broad, 
rectangular, with angles rounded and cephalic margin showing a very weak 
convexity ; prozona and metazona very feebly convex mesad, these portions 
separated by a broad but shallow, transversely arcuate sulcus. Tegmina 
short, truncate, without keels at shoulders, leaving a very large scutellum 
exposed. Wings not visible. 

Abdomen pilose, widening distad to the very large ultimate tergite ; 
preceding tergite with latero-caudal angles bluntly rounded, in these areas 
irregularly rugose. Ultimate tergite broader than long, shining, rugulose and 
becoming rugose laterad and distad, raised in a low blunt projection above the 
internal portion of each arm of the forceps, moderately concave between 
these, with a very narrowly transverse, smooth area and laterad of these 
prominences more strongly concave. Pygidium concealed, directed cephalad. 
Forceps heavy, symmetrical, almost evenly convex, but showing slightly 
the greatest curvature mesad ; dorsal surface impressed and longitudinally 
striate pro xi mad, weakly convex distad, as is the entire ventral surface, which 
is well supplied with hairs. Forceps proximad very heavy, the internal 
portion of the arms produced so as to meet, forming a nearly vertical, inter- 
locking series of a few heavy, blunt teeth, beyond this point the internal surface 
is concave as the arm narrows to the median point, the dorso -internal margin 
bluntly produced at its base, the ventro -internal margin armed with a series 
of minute but distinct tubercles to the median point. The distal half of the 
forceps is stout and expands very weakly at the apex, which is bidentate ; 



MORGAN BEBARD 201 

the external (distal) portion blunt conical, the internal margin produced in a 
smaller Muni knob, with a fev* very small knobs along its distal face toward 
the distal projection. Penultimate sternite large, with lateral margins 
oblique to the broad apex, which is weakly concave mesad and 
convex laterad. 

Limbs strongly compressed and carinulate. Caudal metatarsus slightly 
longer than combined length of the two succeeding joints ; hirsute, this very 
heavy ventrad. 

Length of body i'.Yo. <rreatest width of head (across eyes) 3'74, length of 
pronotum 3*53, greatest width of pronotuni 3*33, length of tegmen T7. greatest 
width of ultimate tergite 6'7, length of forceps 6*8 mm. 

Head blackish chestnut brown, paling to cinnamon brown between the 
eyes. Antennae tawny. Pronotum and tegmina dull, deep chestnut brown. 
Abdomen mere polished, deep chestnut brown, darkening to blackish distad. 
Forceps blackish chestnut brown. Limbs immaculate, ochraceous tawny. 

The type is unique. 

Granopygia kallipyya (Dohrn). 

1863. [Pyyidicrana] Jcallipygos Dohrn, Stettiner Ent. Zeit., XXI V. 
p. 53. [ / , 9 ; Eastern India.] 

Snowdon Peak, Nilgiri Hills, Madras Presidency, 8,000 feet, 6th 
September 1917 (Y. R. Rao ; on the bark of a tree), one male, one female. 

In the male, the forceps have a stout tooth proximad at the external 
margin, directed dorsad. This is as originally described, not "somewhat 
crested irregularly," as given by Burr. 

Length of body, male 20'5, female ID; length of pronotum male 3, 
female 33 ; width of pronotum male 2*8, female :>1 ; total length of tegmei 
male 3*6, female :V6 ; length of forceps male 5, female 5*4 mm. 



i* 



LABIDUKID.i:. 

PSALIN V. 

We agree with Burr's statements in l'tlo 1 that the genera Psalis, Anisoldbis 
and Euborellia, as previously defined by him. constituted an unnatural 
grouping which necessitated <• miplete rearrangement. We deplore his 
method in that paper, however, of erecting new genera based solely on the 
characters of the male metaparameres. We feel that, carefully studied, 

•Concealed, except from t lie side, for 0'5 mm. 
x J(/u,r. R. Microsc Soc, lOlo, p. .5-J4. 



202 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 



B 



uch units, il valid, will show adequate diagnostic features of difference in the 
external structure. Until treated in such manner, however, it is a difficult 
matter to decide whether the genera so erected deserve recognition and 
still more difficult to place generically such species as Burr omitted from his 
evidently hurried genitalic study. 

Homoeolabis maindroni Borelli. 

1911. Homoeolabis maindroni Borelli, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. 
Univ. Torino ; XXVI, No. 640, p. 2. [ d" , Pondicherry.] [Also recorded from 
Coimbatore, Bangalore and Coorg. T. B. F.] 

Sidapur, Coorg, 13th to 14th May 1914 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one 
female. 

Coimbatore, Madras Presidency, 1921 (A. P. Nathan), one male, one 
female. 

This species has been discussed by Burr 1 : we offer the following data :— 

Stink glands obsolete. Abdominal surface very minutely impresso- 
punctulate dorso-proximad, more strongly so ventrad, almost smooth dorso- 
distad, well supplied with hairs distad and less decidedly so laterad ; distal 
tergites scarcely at all produced laterad. Pygidium vertical, very narrow. 
Forceps very similar in the sexes, very slightly heavier in male than in female ; 
heavy, with branches straight to the immediate apices, which are incurved ; 
ventral surface weakly and dorsal surface more strongly convex, the latter with 
a proximal scarification on external half, formed by a transverse series of short, 
irregular, longitudinal ridges and there well supplied with short hairs ; ventro- 
internal margin supplied with very low, blunt, nodiform teeth, which decrease 
in size and become more regular distad. Penultimate sternite with free 
margin broadly and evenly convex. 

The armament of the caudal metatarsus in this species apparently agrees 
closely with that of Titanolabis*. Ventral surface armed on external margin 
with a row of heavy, widely spaced spines, the entire ventral surface thickly 
supplied with elongate, stiff bristles, which on the ventral portion of the 
internal face become much more numerous and shorter, there appearing 
furry. 

Length of body, male 173, female 16 and 19'5 ; length of pronotumf 
male 2*24, female 2'31 and 3'13 ; greatest (caudal) width of pronotum 

1 ProC Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), VII, p. 777 (191 1). 

* Comparison is made with imperfect specimens of T. colossea (Dohrn), from New South 
Wales, Australia, in the Philadelphia Collections. 

fNot including the greatly depressed neck which measures — Male, U-24, female, 0*34 
and 0*34 mm. 



MORGAN BEBARD 203 

male 2*33, female 2'18* and 2'35 ; length nt tegmen male 177. female 
|,s| and :i(>l ; width of tegmen male 012. female 0'6! and if 17 ; length of 
forceps male 3 3 female 3'26 and 3"4 ; proximal width oi forceps male L"36 a 
female 1*37 and 138 mm. 

Paralabis greeni (Burr). (Plate XIX, figure 3.) 

Ks«» ( .». Anisolabis greeni Burr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7). IV. p. l'-"j7. 
[ y , 9; Pundalu-oya (nee Punduloya), Ceylon.] 

Pundalu-oya, Ceylon, (E. E. Green), one male, "////<< (winch we here 
designate as single type), [British Museum]. 

Hopeville Estate. Shevaroy Hills, Madras Presidency, 16th Octobei 
L912 (T. B. Fletcher), one male, [British Museum]. 

Through the kindness of the authorities of the British Museum, we are 
able not only to diagnose Burr's greeni more fully, but also to verify the presence 
in Southern India of this species. 

In greeni the head, pronotum, mesonotum, metanotum and dorsal surface "I 
the abdomen are all very finely but decidedly and thickly impresso-punctulate, 
the tegmina slightly less so. Tins is not true for P. casletsi (Bormans) 
and Epilabis penicillata (Borelli). The former has the head and pronotum 
polished and punctulations sub-obsolete, the remaining dorsal portions with a 
finer punctulation ; the latter has the head and pronotum polished and smooth 
and remaining portions even more finely punctulate. 

Though in general structure agreeing more closely with penicillata, greeni 
does not show as decided narrowing of the abdomen caudad and the ultimate 
tergite is, therefore, wider. The male sex of that species is quickly distinguished 
by the remarkable specialization of the penultimate sternite. 

The male forceps of greeni are weakly asymmetrical, with a sub-obsolete 
tooth meso-proximad, rather than mesad, as described by Burr. In the 
type the limbs, mouthparts and all but distal portion of the last of the first 

tin antenna] joints are tawny, the femora slightly darker distad. The 

Shevaroy 3pecimen differs in having these portions less contrastingly paler 
than the other dark brown parts of the insect, the proximal antenna! joints 
scarcely paler than the others. Both have the thirteenth antenna! joint buffy 
or ochraceous. 

The vestigial tegmina in this species and the apparently very closely 
related P. astruci (Burr) are of the same remarkable type developed In ecu 
and E. penicillata. 

*'11h- pronotum is deformed m this specimen. 



STUDIES IX IXPTAN PERM ALTERA 

The generic position of the species is in doubt. The species certainly 
appears bo be congeneric with penicittata and Burr stated the possibility of this 
lieing the rase when referring greeni to his new genus Paralabis 1 . 

The measurements of the two males before us are as follows, those of the 
type being given first: length of body 14 and 14'2, length of pronotum 
(exclusive of neck) 214 and 235, width of pronotum 231 and 252, length of 
tegmen 0*88 and L'04, width of tegmen T22 and 1*43, length of forceps 2'9 
and :>1 mm. 

Paralabis castetsi (Bormans). (Plate XIX, figure 4.) 

L897. C[arcinophora\ castetsi Bormans in Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent., 
France, LXVI, p. 284. [3,9; Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, India.] 

Kodaikanal. Madras Presidency, 26th March to 2nd April 1921 (U. 
Leigh), thirteen males, fourteen females, three juv. 

This is a smaller, proportionately broader, darker and more polished 
insect than P. greeni (Burr). The development of the male forceps, moreover, 
is distinctive, the curvature different in the more specialized condition and the 
internal margin never toothed. 

The species, like greeni, is subject to decided size variation. The maximum 
for the former is not as great, however, as the minimum known for the latter. 
Burr failed entirely to recognize its correct relationship, assigning it to the 
genus Psalis without comment. 

The following changes are noted in depauperate individuals of the species. 
The arms of the male forceps from asymmetrical and well bowed to similar and 
scarcely arcuate. The sides of the male abdomen with latero-caudal portions 
of the tergites from angulate, produced and carinulate to scarcely produced 
(and that only for the distal tergites), rounded and not carinulate. 

In the present series the length measurements are : male 7 to l()-3, female 
8 to 10'2 mm. The smallest males have the forceps so weakly curved that. 
in this respect, they are not distinguishable from some of the females. 

In coloration the specimens have the head, pronotum and abdomen very 
dark-, the antennae and limbs paler. The antenna? have the first two joints, and 
sometimes one or two joints distad, paler than the others. 

Epilabis penicittata (Borelli). (Plate XIX, figures 5 and 6.) 
1911. Eiiborellia penicittata Borelli, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. 
Torino, XXVI, No. 640, p. 3. [J, 9; Coonoor (India).] 

1 Jour. R. Microsc. Soc, 1915, p. 540 (1915). 



MORGAN HEBARD 205 

Ootacamund, Nilgiri Hills Madras Presidency, May 1912 (K. S. Padmana- 

Ui.i ). one iiiiilr, one Eemale. 

The remarkable specialization of the male penultimate sternite, described 
by Borelli, is here figured. These specimens are paler and more reddish than 
the specimens of Paralabis greeni (Burr) before us, particularly cephalad. 
The antennae and limbs are paler than the other portions much as in the speci- 
men of greeni from the Shevaroy Hills, the former, however, showingno trace 
of annulation distad.* 

Length of body, male 13*8, female 117, length of pronotum (exclusive 
<il ueck), male 204, female Till, width of pronotum, male 2"18, Eemale 2 
length of tegmen, male 0'85, female 0*85, width of tegmen, male 1*22, Eemale 
L'22, length of forceps, male 2'38, female 2'5 mm. 

Euborellia annandalei (Burr). 

L906. [Anisolabis] annandalei Burr, Jour. Asiatic Sen-. Bengal (N. S.), 
II, p. 389. [d; Comilla, Purneah District (Bengal). J 

In Burr's latest revisionary work 1 this species is not assigned. The 
correct generic position consequently remains in doubt. 

Comilla, Purneah District, Bengal, 20th February 1906 (C. S. Misra), two 
Eemales. 

This topotype is the first female of annandalei to be reported. The sex 
agrees closely with the description of the male, except in the following features : 
abdomen slightly widest mesad, distal tergites with latero-caudal angles 
bluntly produced at slightly over ninety degrees and with surfaces their 
impiesso-punctulate. Ultimate tergite showing a very weak, medio 
longitudinal, linear sulcus ; surface weakly wrinkled distad ; with a weak, blunt 
keel laterad, there impresso-punctulate. Penultimate sternite rectangulate 
produced caudad, with apex very broadly rounded. Forceps with branches 
straight to the incurved apices, weakly and bluntly triquetrous proximad, 
almost attingent, with ventro-internal margin showing a series of very small, 
blunt, nodiform teeth. The caudal metatarsus is armed with two ventral rows 
of small spines, flanked internally by a fringe of lamellate plates and well 
supplied with hairs. This same type is found in Paralabis castetsi (Bornians) 
and Epilabis penicillata (Borelli). 

Length of body 13*2, length of pronotum 2'38 3 greatesl (caudal) width oi 
pronotum 2'2S. length of tegmen l"97, width of tegmen ' 77, length of forceps 
.">' 1 mm. 

* See further comparison under that species. 
1 Jour. /•'. Microsc. 8oc, L915-1916. 



206 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Euborellia stdli (Dohrn). 
isiil. F[orcinella] sldk Dohrn, Stettin Ent. Zeit., XXV, p. 286. 

L 9 , Java.] 

L907. Anisolabis minuta Caudell, Jour. New York Ent. Soc, XV, p. 168. 
[ .< , 9; Arroyo and Mayaguez, Porto Rico.] 

Coimbatore, Madras Presidency, 1921 (A. P. Nathan), one male, one female. 

Compared with a West Indian series, recorded by Rehn and Hebard as 
Euborellia minuta (Caudell), in 1917, demonstrates the synonymy indicated 
above. The size differences, which we noted at that time and which we 
believed indicated the probability of minuta being a distinct species, are 
worthless. Burr had already suggested the above synonymy, 1 but apparently 
without comparison of West Indian specimens with material from the Far East. 

The West Indian material before us averages more recessive in coloration 
than the pair here recorded (which apparently show the normal coloration for 
Indian material), but, as would be expected, a number of specimens from the 
West Indies are fully as dark as these. 

Length of body, male 8*2, female 9'7 ; length of pronotuin, male 
1 •_'. female 136 ; caudal width of pronotum, male T2, female 1*43; 
length of tegmen, male 0'95, female 1'09 ; width of tegmen, male 0"35, female 
0-47 and 0"54 ; length of forceps, male T29, female T97 mm. 

Euborellia annulipes (H. Lucas). 

1847. Forficesila annulipes Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (2), V, p. 
LXXXIV. [" Jardin des Plantes, Paris " ; probably introduced.] 

Abbottabad, Hazara District, North- West Frontier Province, 21st May 
1915 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one female. 

Hangu, North- West Frontier Province, 10th May 1916 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher), two males. 

Sargodha, Chenab Colony, Punjab, August 1906 (H. M. Lefroy), one male. 

Pusa, Bihar, 11th June to 21st September 1908 and 1920, two males, 
seven females, one juv. female. 

Laitlyngkot, Khasia Hills, Assam, 5,500 feet, 16th October 1920 (T. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male, one female. 

Upper Shillong, Khasia Hills, Assam, 5,800 to 6,000 feet, 12th to 15th June 
1918 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male. 

Santikoppa, North Coorg, 4th to 10th May 1914 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ; 
on fruit of Carey a arbor ea), one female. 

1 Gen. Ins., Dermaptera, Fasc. 122, p. 31 (1911). 



MORGAN HEBARD 207 

Coimbatore, Madias Presidency, 7th January L921 (A. I'. Nathan), 
one male, one female; 2-ith July 1912 (T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar), one 
female. 

The present series exhibits the usual (dour variation shown by annulipes, 
the limbs being conspicuously annulate in the majority oi specimens. In the 
examples from Laitlyngkot, however, the annuli are very broad, heavy and 
sharply defined, while in those from Hangu they are obsolete. 

The latter specimens are exceptionally large and heavy for the spec 
the male showing the maximum curvature of the forceps developed, which 
closely resembles the normal type of these appendages developed in E. mcesta 
(Gene).* 

The specimen from Santikoppa is very remarkable in possessing truncate 
tegmina, which overlap and reach slightly beyond the caudal margin of the 
mesonotum. A very few specimens of this species are known with fully 
developed tegmina and wings, but this is the firsl specimen to be recorded 
showing the present condition. The presence and character of the tegmina 
would lead one firsl to suppose this specimen to be near "PsaHs'' lefroyi 
(Burr) but we believe instead that it is simply an individual of annulipes 
abnormal in this respect. 

Labidurtn^e. 

Labi dura riparia (Pallas). 

1773. Forficuhi riparia Pallas, Keise, Russ. Reichs, pt. II. p. 727. 
[Shores of Irtysch River, Western Siberia.] 

The series of seventy-three Indian specimens, now before us. shows the 
same variability which was thoroughly discussed by Burr, in 1910. ] At that 
time bengalensis was recognized as distinct species, hut after careful 
consideration of the evidence at hand we feel convinced that it represents 
nothing more than the most striking variant developed in riparia in the 
Indian region. Burr reached the conclusion that bengalensis did not 
merit specific recognition in 1915. 2 

In spite of even greater variation than occurs in the species in the New 
World, the Indian examples -how one average difference, varying in degree but 
exhibited by all the material before us from thai region. This lies in the 
average slightly stronger denticulation of the veDtro-internal margin of the 

* Very close agreement in these features is shown bj the optimum males before us from 
Miami, Florida. 

Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 100 

• Jour. B. Microsc. Soc. 1915, p. HI. 



20H STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

forceps in the Eemale sex. The largesl specimens of the bengalensis variant 
.h,,\\ this feature strikingly. In the depauperate condition,, which it would 
appear best to refer to as the inermis variant, however, this denticulation is 
likewise distinctly stronger than in any series before us from localities not in 
the Indian region. 

In treating variants such as here occur, we believe that a system of 
symbols, much like that used by Helm and Hebard for the American species 
of the genus Gryllus, constitutes the most satisfactory method by which the 
individuals recorded may be characterized. For the present species we would 
suggest tin' following : — - 

Coloration. 

A — very light. E — brilliant. 

B — medium. F — moderately bright. 

C — dark but showing contrasts. G— dull. 

D — dark and showing no contrasts. 

Organs of Flight. 

W— very short, extreme tips of wings alone projecting. 
X — short, tips of wings projecting. 
V -slightly reduced. 
Z- — fully developed. 

Male Genitalia. 

a — caudal margin of ultimate tergite unarmed. 

b -caudal margin of ultimate tergite armed with two sub-obsolete points 

c— caudal margin of ultimate tergite aimed with two acute points. 

d— internal margin of forceps with teeth sub-obsolete. 

e — internal margin of forceps with a meso-distal tooth. 

f — internal margin of forceps with a meso-proximal and a meso-distal 
tooth. 

g — internal margin of forceps with a meso-proximal and a meso-distal 
tooth, and other smaller teeth. 

h — internal margin of forceps with a meso-proximal and a meso-distal 
tooth, and other smaller teeth, the majority of which are beyond the meso- 
distal tooth. 

w — seiiiilation of ventro -internal margin of female forceps obsolete. 
-serrulation of ventro -internal margin of female forceps very weak. 
-seniilatioit of ventro-internal margin of female forceps distinct, 

z— serrulation of ventro-internal margin of female forceps well developed* 



MORGAN BEBARD 209 

Size. 

1 — very large. 
2 — large. 
.'!_ medium. 
I — small. 
5 — very small. 

The variants included in the presenl series we would characterize as 
follows : — 

riparia (Dallas) A to (J, F to <i. X to Z. a to c, d to 1. w to y. 1 to 4. 



Typical condition— BF { |° a ex 



hengalensis Dolirn 1 13 to C, EZahz2. 

iclerica (Serville) 2 A to 13, FXa, weak t to g, y. o to 4. 

inermis (Brunner)^ DGWa, d or very weak f to g, x to y, 5. 

It is probable that Brunnei's variety is based on merely the very depau- 
perate condition of riparia, which is not as dark and does not have the tegmina 
as strongly truncate as does the Indian variant here characterized. If this 
is true, no name is available for the Indian condition; but we are opposed to 
naming any such variants and believe it best to record the presenl material 
as variant inermis, with this necessary qualification. 

Gandarbal. Kashmir. 5,600 feet, September 1917 (Dutt), one male 4 , 
BBZce2. 

Keonthal, Simla Mills. 8,000 feet. December 1908 (G. M. Carson), 
eleven males, twelve females,"' eight juv., DGWa, d to very weak g, y5. 

Pusa. Bihar, 15th March to Isl November 1909 to 1914, 
six males, eight females, five jaw. one pair CBYahz2, othi A 

I" 13, F, X to Z, a. weak f to g, weak a to z. .') and 4. 

Chapra, Bihar (Mackenzie), one male. 7 BEZah"-'. one female. BEZce2. 

Comilla, Bengal Presidency, 19th January 1906 (A. Wahab), two juv. 

'Described from Bengal as Labidura hengalensis, Stettin Ent. Zeit., XXIV, p. 312 
I 363). 

Described from Pondicherry as Forficelisa icteric/. Hist. Nat. Ins., Orlh., p. 24 
1839 

Described from Bruck, Lower Austria, awl Serbia - Labidura riparia var. inei 
Prodr. Europ. Orth., p. 5 (18 ) 

'Typical riparia. except in being more brilliantly coloured. 
This scries is typical of the depauperate dark form, which i called the inermis 

variant. t 

Typical 'V/< rica \ ari mt. 
'Typical hengalensis variant. 



210 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Goalundo bo Gauhati, Brahmaputra River, Eastern Bengal, July 1919 
(T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), five males, five females 1 , CEZ, one b, others 

E, weak z, 2. 
Dacca, Eastern Bengal, 23rd July 1917 (in parasitic growth on mango), 

one male, CEZbfi. 

Nongpoh, Khasi Hills, Assam, July 1907 (D. Nowroji), one male, 
CZa, weak g, slender 2. 2 

Poona, Bombay Presidency, December 1908 (R. D. Deshmukh ; under 
stones), two iuv. 

Jubbulpur, Central Provinces, 9th January 1918 (A. G. Ramaswami), 
one female, BFXz3. 

Coimbatore, Madras Presidency, 12th October 1912 (A. G. Ramaswami), 
one female, CGXz3. 

The Keonthal series is of particular interest in showing the maximum 
degree of depauperation for the species. The extremes in this series are : 
length of body, male 8'7 to 13, female 9"7 to 12*1 ; length of forceps, male 3*2 
to 4 - 3, female 3' 7 to 4 mm. The smallest males might easily be mistaken 
for females, so greatly simplified are the forceps, while the ultimate abdominal 
tergite is narrowed and tapers distad. 

The enormous size variation in the species is shown by the fact that the 
extremes of length, exclusive of forceps, for the series here recorded, are 8*7 
to 22*5 mm. 

Nala lividipes (Dufour). (Plate XIX, figures 7, 8 and 9.) 

1820. For ficula pallipes Dufour, Ann. gen. Sc. phys. Bruxelles, V, 
p. 316, PI. CXVI, figs. 7, la and lb. [<? , $ ; Lower Catalonia, Spain.] 

1828. F [orfidda] lividipes (Dufour). new name proposed Ann. Sc. Nat., 
XIII, p. 340. 

Haripur, Hazara District, North-West Frontier Province, 27th May 
1915 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male. 

Taru, Peshawar District, North- West Frontier Province, 16th to 29th May 
1915 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male, one female. 

Hoshangabad, Central Provinces, 14th to 19th September 1911 (T. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher), two females. 

Janjgir, Bilaspur, Central Provinces, October 1915 (C. S. Misra), one male. 

1 One of these males has one of the arms of the forceps unspecialized, simple, cylindrical 
and 7 millimeters in length ; the length of the other normal arm being 9-7 millimeters. 

2 This condition agrees closely with the type of the synonymous Apterygida hmeinoe 
Rehn, from North-Eastern Africa. 



MORGAN EEBARD 211 

Pusa, Bihar, 31st March to 2nd November L904 to 1919 (18 taken 
at light 1 ), ten males, sixteen females. 

Goalundo to Gauhati, Brahmaputra River, Eastern Bengal, July 1919 
(T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male. 

Barisal, Bengal, 29th May 1906 (H. M. Lefroy), one female. 

Coimbatore, Madras Presidency (C. S. Misra), one female. 

Lebong, aear Darjiling, Sikkim, 5,000 feet, September 1908 (II. M. Lefroy), 
one female. 

In a very few specimens the immediate basal portion and the tip of the 
exposed portion of the wings are slightly paler than elsewhere. In a larger 
aumber of specimens only the tips of these organs are slightly paler, bul the 
.Meat majority of individuals havetegmina and wings solidly unieolorons. 

Accompanying size variation, we find the male forceps varying from an 
armed type (PlateXIX, figure 7). through an unarmed type (Plate XIX, figure 8), 
to a simple type (Plate XIX, figure 9), in which both teeth and characteristic 
curvature have disappeared. In the series before us the following males have 
armed forceps: Pusa 4, Goalundo to Gauhati 1, Tarn 1, Janjgir 1. The 
specimen from Haripur has the form as normal for lividipes, hut lacks the meso- 
distal teeth, while the other males are smaller and have evenly mid weakly 
eurved, unarmed forceps. 

Nala nepalensis (Burr). 

L907. [Lahidura] nepalensis Burr, Bee. Indian Mus., I. p. 208. I '. 
$ ; Soondrijal and Pharping, Nepal.] 

A.bbottabad, Ifaxara District, North-Western Frontier Province, June 
11)1 1) (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one male. 

In this specimen the ambulation of the limbs is reduced to a very weak 
suffusion, while the organs of flight show some reduction (length of tegmen 
P77, length of exposed portion of wing 0'27 mm.). Otherwise it agrees fully 
with the original description. 

Forcipula decolyi Bormans. 

1900. Forcipula decolyi Bormans, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva (l>), 
XX. p. Ml. [d 1 , $; llaveri, British New Guinea.] 

Palni Hills, Madras Presidency, 5,000 feci (C. Leigh), two females, two 

pi v. 

The adult females measure: length of body i'l'-l'';. length of tegmen 
1-8-5, length of forceps 8-7*8 mm. 

1 See note by Annandale on appearance of this species .-if li'jilit, in Burr, Fauna Br. 
India, Dorinaptera, p. 15 (1910). 

2 



212 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Forcipula despinosa Hebard. 

lit 17. Forcipula despinosa Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 
1917, p. 234, PL XVI, fig. 1. [<?, Northern India.] 

The microscopically pitted metazona, tegmina and wings are apparently 
tin- most distinctive features in this species. 

We believe that the size and number of projections on the abdominal 
tergites are probably subject to considerable individual variation in the 
majority, if not all, of the species of Forcipula. 

Forcipula lurida Bolivar. 

1897. F[orci pula] quadrispinosa var. lurida Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, LXVI, p. 283 [ tf , Madras Presidency.] 

Pusa, Bihar, 15th May 1917 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one female. 

Damukdia, Sara, Bengal, 26th March 1911 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ; at 
light on steamer), one female. 

Gauhati, Eastern Bengal, 25th April to 4th May 1918 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher), two males. 

The two males before us differ from the material previously recorded in 
having only the third and fourth tergites showing alateial oblique keel, these 
keels produced in a tooth, the caudal margin of which bears very minute 
teeth. The reduction in number of such keels we believe to be wholly attrib- 
utable to individual variation. In the male showing the greater reduction of 
these keels, the forceps lack all denticulation excepting the heavy median 
tooth. 

Parisolabiin.e. 

Pseudisolabis elegans Hebard. 

1917. Pseudisolabis elegans Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 
1917, p. 236, PI. XVI, figs. 2 and 3. [ e , 9 ; Kulu, Kangra, India.] 

This species agrees with P. tenera Burr 1 in coloration, and with P. 
immsi Burr 2 in form of the male forceps. It is possible that all may event- 
ually prove to be variants of one species. If two valid species alone survived, 
however, it is probable that these would be P. burri Borelli and P. immsi 
Burr. 

1 Described in Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 104, PI. IV, fig. 36 (1910). [d",Murree, 
Punjab.] 

2 Described in Jour. Asiatic SoC Bengal (N. S.), IX, p. 184, fig., (1913). [cf, $ ; 
Kuridi, Jaunsar, Base of Himalayas, Northern India.] 



MORGAN HEBARD 213 

IlK.U'HYI.ABriX.K. 

Metisolabis bifoveolata (Bolivar). 

1897. [Brachylabis] bifoveolcUa Bolivar, Ann . Soc. Ent. France, I..WI. 
p. 285, PI. 10. fig. 1. [ •' . Madras Presidency.] 

Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, 26th March 1921 (C. Leigh), one female. 

We can not agree with Burr's assignment, in 1911, l of this species 
to the genus Ctenisolabis. In the present specimen the antennae have 11 
segments, the third nearly twice as long as broad, the fourth rounded quadrate, 
the succeeding segments longer than broad, becoming more elongate and 
slender distad. 

The first three antennal segments are dark reddish brown like the limbs, 
tlir other segments blackish like the dull head, pronotum, abdomen and 
forceps. 

\- figured by Bolivar, the eyes are only slightly longer than the checks. 
The antennae are so jointed that they swing back readily, at a decided angle, 
to the apex of the first segment. This gives to individuals a distinctive facies 
which appears to constitute a peculiarity of the species of this subfamily. 

The female before us differs from the described male in lacking stink 
glands, though there is a scarred emargination of the caudal margin of the 
third tergite on each side in place of these. 

Length of body 11*8, length of pronotum 2'56, least (cephalic) width of 
pronotum 1"84, greatest (caudal) width of pronotum 2*79, greatest (nieso- 
caudal) width of abdomen 4'08. length of forceps 2*18 mm. 

Nannisolabis formicoides Burr. 

•^ V1911. 'Nannisolabis formicoides Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), 
VII, p. 781. [d 1 , ?; Shembaganur, Madura District, Southern India.] 

Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, 26th and 30th March 1921 (C. Leigh). 
two males, one female. 

We cannot help feeling a certain amouni of hesitancy in thus recording 
the present material. Though we have no direct evidence, there would seem 
to be a possibility that these specimens represent immature individuals of 
Metisolabis bifoveolata (Bolivar) and that Nannisolabis is a genus having no 
validity, including "species" based on the immature condition of that and 
other species of the Brachylabiince. 

Tn the material before us, the eyes and antennas are as in the female of 
.1/. bifoveolata here recorded, except thai the tenth, eleventh^and twelfth 

1 Jour.' A aid tic Soc. Bengal [N. S.), VII. p. 780. 



214 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

antenna! segments are bufiy. The head, pronotum, abdomen and forceps are 
blaok and shining, the limbs bufiy, but with femora suffused with blackish to 
near their extremities. 

There is a scarred emargination on each side of the caudal margin of the 
third abdominal tergite in both sexes. 

Length of body male 6'3 to 6*8, female 5"9 ; length of pronotum male 
108 to 1*15, female 115 ; cephalic width of pronotum male 0*85 to 0*88, female 
OS") : caudal width of pronotum, male 1*18 to 1'22, female 1*3 ; greatest (meso- 
caudal) width of abdomen, male 1*48 to 1*5, female 1*7 ; length of forceps, 
male 0"85 to 0"88, female 1*08 mm. 



LABIID^l. 

Labiin.e. 
Spongovosiox semiflavus (Bormans). 

1895. Sp[otigophora] semi-flam Bormans, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stoi. Nat. 
Genova, XXXIV, p. 385. [ cf , 9 ; Carin-Cheba and Carin Ghecu, Burma.] 

Savira Butti, South Coorg, 22nd May 1914 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ; 
under bark), one female. 

This unique female agrees so closely with the original description of 
semi-flavus that we feel justified in so recording it. 

A large, blunt, internal projection on the arms of the forceps causes these 
to be attingent proximad, from which point they are slender, straight, with 
internal face showing minute denticulations, to the incurved apices. 

Length of body 1 6, length of pronotum 1*05, cephalic width of pronotum 
- 95, caudal width of pronotum 1 22, length of tegmen 1"97, length of exposed 
portion of wing 0"54, length of forceps 1*9 mm. 

Chcetospania Karsch. 

One problem concerning the use of this generic name confronts the 
systematist. That is the proper generic position of major, the genotype of 
Platylabia, described from a single female, from the Island of Celebes. Four 
species were originally described under Platylabia, the first of which has been 
selected as genotype. 2 The second, thoracica, is a species congeneric with 
Chwtospania, while the third and fourth have been placed in synonymy under 
Labia curvicauda (Motschulsky). 

1 The specimen before us has shrunk considerably in drying. 

2 By Kir by, Syn, Cat, Orth, I, p. 21 (1904). 



MORGAN HEBART) -J. | ;") 

We hold that the true generic relationship of major cannot at the presenl 
time be determined, and that, as it is highly probable thai major is no! conge- 
neric with thoracicxi, the generic name Platylabia must be held lor the single 
species major. Should major and ihoracica be found to be congeneric, ('hutos- 
pania would fall as a synonym of the older Platylabia. On the other hand, 
should the Malayan and Burmese species sparattoides prove to be a synonym 
of major (as has been assumed, but not satisfactorily proven, by Burr), or 
congeneric with that species, the genus Paler, which Burr erected tor sparattoi- 
des and then placed under Platylabia, would indeed fall as a synonym of 
Platylabia. This latter conclusion we cannot concur in. on the same grounds 
that we retain CJustospania. 

Hence we recognize, for the present, the genera : Platylabia, with genotype 
major, from t]\c Island of Celebes ; Ghcetospania, with genotype inornata, from 
Madagascar; and Paler, with genotype sparattoides, described from the Islands 
of Penang and Sumatra. 

The most important references bearing on this complicated problem may 
be summarized as follows : — • 

1807. Platylabia Dohrn, Stettin Ent, Zeit., XXVIII, p. 347. 

1886. Chcetospania Karsch, Berliner Ent. Zeitschr., XXX, p. 87. 

1895. Platylabia major Bormans, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
XX XIV, p. 380. 

1900. Platylabia sparatt aides Bormans, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
XL, p. 459. 

1910. Palex Burr, Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 68 and Trans. 
Ent. Soc. London, 1910, p. 162. 

lid I. Burr, Stettin Ent. Zeit.. 1911. p. 338 ; Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 
(N. S.), VII, p. 77 1 and 775, and Deutsch. Ent. Nat.-Biblioth, II, 1911, p. 60. 

1912. Burr, Annal. k. k. Nat.-hist. Hofmus. Wien, XXVI, p. 82. 

Chi-toHjiania Lursiomja . new species. (Plate XIX, figures 10 and 11.) 

This handsome little insect is distinguished from the other known species 
ol the genus by the striking contrast of coloration and form of the pygidium 
in the sexes. 

Type: male; Kurseong, Northern Bengal, India. Altitude 4,500 feet. 
dun.' I92(i. (From ( '. Leigh.) [Hebard Collection. Type X,,. 770.] 

Size small, form moderately slender and depressed. Mead flattened, 
sutures sub-obsolete, caudal margin of vertex broadly and roundly obtuse- 
angulate emarginate. Eye slightly over half as long as cheek. Antennae 
with fust joint twice as long as third, fourth as long as third, succeeding joints 



216 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 



acreaaing gradually in length distad, grading from very elongate, pyriform to 
elongate ovate. Pronotum distinctly narrower than head; prozona very 
feebly convex, remaining portions deplanate ; lateral margins straight and 
parallel, caudal margin broadly convex. Tegmina and wings fully developed. 
Abdomen Lacking stink glands, widest meso-distad, ultimate tergite thickened 
above forceps and impressed in intervening area. 

Pygidium convex declivent and as broad as arm of forceps to distal 
portion, which is horizontally produced in a flange, with short lateral margins 
diverging slightly, so that this flange completely fills the space between the 
forceps, its caudal margin transverse. Forceps nearly straight to incurved 
apices, flattened dorsad and ventrad and showing a faint longitudinal linear 
sulcation along the external margins ; internal surface concave proximad, 
with ventro -internal margin there sub-serrulate, armed with a heavy tooth, 
directed mesad at end of proximal three-fifths, this tooth formed by a gradual 
widening of the ventro -internal margin from half the distance to the base of 
the forceps. Penultimate sternite broadly convex, almost truncate distad. 

Limbs short, femora stout. Caudal metatarsus as long as last tarsal joint, 
armed ventrad with two rows of spines and well supplied with hairs on ventral 
portion of internal surface. Second tarsal joint short and simple. Entire 
insect pilose. 

Allotype : female ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection.] 
Agrees with male except as follows : ultimate tergite with thickening at 
bases of forceps slightly heavier and intervening area less depressed. Pygidium 
more weakly declivent, proximal portion weakly convex, directed disto- 
ventrad, so that the pygidium projects further, distal portion horizontal ; 
lateral margins straight, parallel and weakly serrulate, distal margin very 
weakly obtuse-angulate emarginate, thus large and weakly acute-angulate, 
deplanate disto-lateral angles are formed. 

Forceps slightly heavier than those of male ; ventro-internal margin 
weakly serrate proximad, expanding gradually into a flange beyond pygidium 
to median point, thence as this flange gradually narrows its margin undulates, 
disappearing at base of incurved distal extremity of forceps. Penultimate 
sternite with free margin broadly convex, but more strongly convex than in 
male. 

Length of body, male 7'5, female 7*7 ; length of pronotum, male 1*08, 
female T05 ; width of pronotum, male - 92, female - 95 ; length of tegmen, 
male T84, female T97 ; length of exposed portion of wing, male 0*98, female 
1'02 ; greatest width across tegmina, male 1*5, female 1-54 ; length of forceps, 
male 2*58, female 2'45 mm. 



MORGAN HEBARD 217 

Coloration of sexes. Head, tegmina and wings blackish brown, covered 
with coppery pile. Antenna prout's brown, the last three (tenth to twelfth) 
segments warm buff. Pronotum, prosternum and limbs ochraceous-buff 
tinged with tawny, remaining underparts tawny, except the mesosternum 
which is suffused with blackish. Abdomen russet, becoming slightly deeper 
distad and there matching the pygidium and forceps. 

The typical pair alone represent the species. 

Chcetospania stiletto Burr. (Plate XIX, figures 12 and 13.) 

1911. Chcetospania stiletta Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), VII, 
]). 786. [ <5" , 9 ; Shembaganur, Madura District.] 

Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, 1920 (C. Leigh), three males, two females, 
three juv. 

The cephalic femora, which are strikingly darker than any other portion 
of the limbs, lanceolate male pygidium, more highly specialized forceps and 
comparatively large size are features which readily distinguish this species 
from any of the other known forms of the genus. 

The species bears a striking, though purely superficial, resemblance to 
certain species of the American genus Prosparatta, agreeing closely in size and 
Eorm with the Mexican P. flavipennvla (Rehn), though appreciably more 
deplanate. 

As the pygidium and forceps have not been previously figured, we have 
given illustrations of these appendages for both sexes of this interesting species. 

Length of body, male 9*7, female 9'1 ; length of pronotum, male 1'38, 
female 1*3; width of pronotum, male 1*15, female 1*06; length of tegmen, 
male 2'2 !. female 2'25; length of exposed portion of wing, male 1 '15, female 
I - 22; greatest width across tegmina, male 1*8, female 1/84; length of forceps, 
male 333, female 32 mm . 

Labia pilicornis (Motschulsky). 

1863. Forfiscelia pilicornis Motschulsky, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
XXXVI, Part 2. p. 2. [$; Nuwara Eliya Mountains. Ceylon.] 

Pusa, Bihar, 17th November 1916 (H. Singh), one female. 

This specimen, like material which we have recorded from the Hawaiian 
Islands, is blackish mummy brown, paling gradually to tawny on the forceps. 
As a result it is an appreciably darker insect than L. minor (Linnaeus), though, 
as Burr has stated, thereis some superficial resemblance between these species. 
Both are so small that the striking structural differences which they exhibit 
can scarcely be noted by the naked eye. 



218 STUDIES IN INDIAN DEEMAPTERA 

Prolabio arachidis (Yersin). 

I860. Fmficula arachidis Yersin, Aim. Soc. Ent. France (3), VIII, p. 509, 
PL X. figs. 33 to 35. [Adventive at Marseilles, France.] 

Pusa, Bihar, 20th October 1908 (E. D. Deshmukh ; at light), one female ; 
7th November 1906 (H. M. Lefroy), one male. 

Tliis greasy and unprepossessing species has become widely established 
through the tropical regions of the earth. 

FOEFICULIDiE. 

Chelisochin^e. 
Exypnus koorgensis, new species. (Plate XX, figures 14 and 15.) 

It is a difficult matter to assign this interesting, though plainly coloured, 
species to the proper genus.' The more slender tarsal joints, with second 
joint failing to reach the median poition of the third joint, alone prevent its 
beinff referred to Chelisoches. The tibiae, which are flattened dorsad in nearly 
their entire distal half, prevent assignment to Adiathetus. 

The species, when compared with E. pulchripennis (Bormans), may be found 
t ( i represent a distinct genus. Material of that species is not at present available. 

Type : male ; Sidapur, Coorg, India. Elevation 3,000 feet. 19th June 
1917 (T. R. Naganathan). [Hebard Collection, Type No. 773.] 

Size and form medium, close to that of Chelisoches morio (Fabricius). 
Head with frons weakly and lateral portions of occiput decidedly more tumid, 
separated by the broad deep sutures ; caudal margin of occiput moderately 
concave. Eye three-fifths as long as cheek. Antennas with eighteen segments ; 
first segment equal to combined length of second, third and fourth ; second 
segment slightly over twice as long as broad ; third two-thirds as long as 
second ; succeeding segments increasing slightly in length and slenderness 
distad, these segments elongate ovoid, not showing the conical tendency 
found in G. morio. 

Pronotum slightly longer than wide, lateral margins parallel but curving 
very weakly to the cephalic angles, caudal margin convex ; prozona moderately 
tumid, with a weak medio -longitudinal impressed line and an impressed point 
on each side. Tegmina and wings fully developed, smooth, without keels; 
the former with distal margin weakly concave. 

Abdomen supplied with stink glands, those of the second tergite small, 
of the third tergite prominent ; surface impresso-punctulate laterad, tins very 
weak on ultimate tergite. Ultimate tergite as in C. morio; roughly bossed 
above bases of forceps, with a depression between, in which are four small 
raised points, the median pair being slightly cephalad of the others. 



MORGAN HEBARD 219 

Pygidium vertical, with caudal surface convex. Forceps well separated, 
cylindrical, elongate, scarcely convex convergent to the incurved apices, which 
meet; proximad the internal surface of each arm is produced in a heavy, 
weakly bilobate projection, these projections touch, beyond, the ventro- 
internal margin is armed wit ha leu sharp, well spaced serrations, the heaviesl 
of which is at base of distal fourth. Penultimate sternite with distal margin 
evenly and weakly convex, excepl mesad, where it is weakly and roundly 
obtuse-angulate emarginate. 

Tarsal joints slender, first joint as long as third, second extending beneath 
third distinctly less than half distance to apex. Ventral surface of caudal 
metatarsus strongly hirsute, with a few widely placed spines along external 
margin, which are difficult to detect. 

A paratypic male, bearing the same data, except that it was taken two 
days earlier, shows the bracliylabic condition of the species. This condition 
is so distinct that the following differences should be noted : — 

Pronotum distinctly less elongate. Forceps very much shorter, evenly 
but very weakly convex to the attingent apices ; the internal basal projections 
less proximal, so a brief space intervenes between their proximal margins and 
the pygidium, more slender, forming a long blunt tooth on each side; beyond 
the ventro-internal margin is unarmed except for a minute bi-denticulation 
near end of proximal two-fifths. 

Length of body 1 13 and 12, length of pronotum 2*08 and 1*8, greatest 
width of pronotum 1/94 and 1*78, length of tegmen 41 and 3*7, length of exposed 
portion of wing f '75 and 15, length of forceps 5*6 and 2'9 nun. 

Head, pronotum, tegmina and abdomen blackish chestnut brown, the 
Latter slightly the darkest. Antennae- dark chestnut brown, with thirteenth 
segment bully. Exposed portion of wings ochraceous-tauny. broadly suffused 
with blackish chestnut brown along the external margin. Forceps russet, 
deepening to chestnut brown distad and with teeth of thai colour. Limbs 
tawny, the femora suffused with chestnut brown in proximal portio 

The species is known from the two males discussed above. 

Proreus simulans, (Stal). 
I860. Forficula simulans, Stal, Kongl. Svenska Freg. Eugenie's Resa, 

I. p. 302, [3, .lava. | 

Pusa, Bihar, 30th September to L8th December L908 and L915 (two 
in sugarcane), three males, one female. 

'The measurements of the macrolabic male type are given first, of the brachylabic male 

paratype last. 



STUDIES TN INDIAN DERMAPTFRA 

Chaumuhani, Noakhali, Bengal, 29th November 1911 (C. C. Ghosh; 
light trap in rice field), one male. 

In the materia] here recorded, the pronotal form shows unusual variation 
in length and in the lateral margins, which in one individual are parallel, but 
in tlir others diverge weakly caudad. Such variation is also shown in a 
Philippine series at hand, the majority from that island having the elongate 
type, with sides parallel or nearly so. 

The males here recorded all have the forceps armed on the ventro-internal 
margin with a small tooth, situated slightly beyond the median point and 
another heavier tooth, just before the apex, this margin finely serrulate to the 
first of these teeth. In the Philippine series the analogous teeth differ not only 
in position but also in size. The first is larger than the largest in the Indian 
material and is situated at the end of the median third, while the second 
is very small and situated just before the apex. This latter tooth is sometimes 
absent. The ventro-internal margin is instead finely serrulate between these 
teeth. 

The material before us shows clearly that we have an exceptionally 
variable insect to consider, and we therefore do not feel justified, without a 
large series from many localities, in recognizing the Indian insect as distinct 
from the Javan simulans, with which our Philippine material fully agrees. 

Further embarrassment is caused by the fact that Forfiouh modesta Stal, 
described from Hong Kong, has been placed as a synonym of simulans by 
Burr, though having line priority. As modesta is described as lacking wings, 
while all of the material before us has fully developed organs of flight, and 
may in addition very possibly show other more important differences, we 
do not believe it advisable, at present and without Chinese material for com- 
parison, to assign simulans to synonymy under modesta. 

Proreus melanocenplialus (Dohrn). 

1865. L[oboj)hora] melanocephala Dohrn, Stettin Ent. Zeit,, XXVI, 
p. 75. [d, ?; Tranquebar, India.] 

Pusa, Bihar, 7th January to 18th December 1908 to 1918 (on sugar- 
cane, in sugarcane stems bored by borers and inside rice stubble), twelve 
males, tliirteen females, four juv. 

Tamkohi, Gorakhpur, United Provinces, 20th April 1910 (H. M. Lefroy), 

male. 

morphism found in the male sex of tins diminutive species is more 

md striking than in any other form of the Dermaptera known to us. 

conditions are developed, showing great difference not only in the ultimate 



MORGAN HEBARD 221 

dorsal fcergite and the pygidium, but in the shape and armament of the forceps 
as well. As these have not been fully described, we give the following data:— 
Type a. Five males. Pusa. Ultimate dorsal tergite decidedly thickened 

caudai 1. the crest of the blunt ridge thus formed strongly rugose, its caudal 
face sloping strongly ventrad, with area above pygidium smooth and distinctly, 
though not strongly, concave. Pygidium vertical, fitting tightly between 
forceps and apparently roughly quadrate, its exposed caudal surface very 
weakly convex-. Forceps short and heavy, curving to the apices, with a 
comparatively large, hlunt ventro -internal tooth, at end of proximal third. 

The forceps vary in heaviness, the arms are weakly bent inward in some 
of these specimens while the tooth varies in relative size and in some is almost 
mesa! in position. 

Type b. Eight males. Pusa and Tamkohi. Ultimate dorsal tergite 
showing only slight convexity above internal portion of bases of forceps, 
between these narrowly impressed, with caudal margin heavily cingulate. 
Pygidium very narrowly produced caudad, forming a very narrowly transverse 
shelf, with (apparent) caudal margin thickened and very weakly concave 
mesad, from that point with surface suddenly deplanate and so sharply 
declivent that it lies in a plane sloping ventro-cephalad. The pygidium thus 
(ills the interval between the arms of the forceps, with its apex tucked far 
beneath the penultimate sternite. Forceps moderately elongate and showing 
slightly the greatest curvature proximad, armed with a stout dorso-internal 
tooth just beyond the pygidium and with ventro-internal margin developed 
in a weak flange to opposite that point, the ventro-internal margin irregularly 
serrulate to end of proximal two-thirds, the last of these small teeth often 
distinctly the heavier. 

The antennas have fifteen or sixteen segments in this species. 

In specimens showing the greatest contrast of coloration, the first two 
antennal segments are blackish, the following two segments yellowish brown, 
the others decidedly darker, though usually paling slightly distad. 

Proreus fletcheri, 1 new species. (Plate XX. figures 16 and 17.) 

This species is related to P. melanocephalus (Dohrn), showing closer 
affinity to P. delicatulus Burr and P. cunctator Burr 2 in having two minute 
but distinct tubercles on the caudal margin of the ultimate tergite. 

Earned in honour "IT. Bainbrigge Fletcher who secured the specimen upon which this 
species is based and through whose kind co-operation the preparation <>t the present paper has 
been made possible. 

"'These specie- were described in 1911, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (X. S.), \ II, pp. Ts'i 
and 790. 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

It is very possible thai these species should be recognized as generically 
distincl from simulans (Stal), genotype of Proreus. Of these, fletcheri is the 
largest, shows the greatest uniformity of coloration and is apparently 
further differentiated by the very elongate antenna! segments and the flattened 

bead. 

Type : male ; Goahmdo to Gauhati, Brahmaputra River, Eastern Bengal, 
India. July 1919 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher). [Hebard Collection, Type 

No. 774.] 

Size small, larger than is usual for melanocephalus ; form rather stout 
and moderately depressed, slightly stouter and more depressed than in that 
species. Head decidedly flattened, eyes three-fifths as long as cheeks, sutures 
broadly impressed ; caudal margin of head nearly transverse, not showing the 
weak but distinct concavity which is found in melanocephalus. Antennae 
with (sixteen and nineteen) segments, which are much more elongate than in 
that species ; first segment large and nearly as long as combined length of 
second to fifth segments, second segment minute, third twice as long as broad, 
fourth two-thirds as long as third, fifth as long as third ; distal segments very 
elongate and slender, fully five times as long as greatest width. Pronotum 
very slightly longer than wide, with lateral margins sub-parallel and caudal 
margin very broadly convex ; surface with cephalic and lateral portions 
of prozona very feebly tumid, remaining portions deplanate. Tegmina and 
wings fully developed. 

Abdomen with stink glands distinct, surface more coarsely impresso- 
punctulate than in melanocephalus and supplied with more numerous, heavier 
hairs. Ultimate tergite weakly tumid above internal portion of forceps, the 
interval between these weakly impressed, the caudal margin there bearing 
two minute tubercles which diverge, as they are directed latero-caudad. 

Pygidium nearly vertical, directed weakly ventro-cephalad and com- 
pletely filling space between forceps; its surface flattened, smooth mesad, 
rugulose laterad, with a very minute tubercle ventrad on each side. Forceps 
stout, flattened cylindrical, curving from their heavy bases to their 
sub-attingent apices, this curvature slightly greatest proximad, where, just 
beyond the pygidium, there is a small, stout tooth situated mesad on the 
internal surface, connected with the ventral margin proximad by a minute, 
short ridge. Caudal margin of penultimate sternite weakly concave mesad 
and weakly convex laterad. 

Tibiae flattened dorsad, cephalic and median tibiae in distal half, caudal 
ibise in distal third. Caudal metatarsus slightly longer than combined length 
of second and third joints. 



MORGAN HEBARD 223 

Length of body 9'3, length of first antennal segment 0*75, length oi l<>ii 
distal antenna! segment 0*61, length of pronotum L*53 3 width of pronotum 
Tl. length of tegnien 2*31, length of exposed portion of wing 1*43, greatest 
width of abdomen 2*24, length of forceps 204 mm. 

Head and proximal portions of antennae deep prout's brown, the latter paling 
to prout's brown distad. Pronotum, tegmina and wings deep prout's brown. 
Abdomen and forceps blackish chestnut brown. Limbs and underparts 
prout's brown, excepting the blackish chestnut brown abdomen and forceps. 

The type is unique. 

Adiathetus tenebrator (Kirby). 

1891. Chelisoches tenehrator Kirby, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool., XX II I. p. 521, 
PI. XII, fig. 5. [9, India.] 

Pollibetta, Coorg, 24th October to 16th November 1915 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher ; under bark), ten males, four females. 

Sidapur, Coorg, 3rd and 12th May 1017 (T. R. Naganathan), two males. 

Mercara, Coorg, 15th to 20th October 1015 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one juv. 

Coondapur, .South Kanara District, 23rd September 1913 (T. V. Rama- 
krislma Ayyar), one juv. 

The male sex of this large black species remained unknown, until described 
by Burr, in 101 1. 1 

As in Chelisoches morio (Fabricius), the males develop forceps either 
dilated in a. strong flange in proximal two-fifths, or tapering gradually without 
flange. Gradations between these types are shown by the scries before us. four 
specimens being of the simple type. The difference in superficial appearance 
between the extremes is very striking. 

The present scries shows the following extremes in measurement : length 
of body, male 13 to 21, female 15 to 20; length of forceps, male 7"3 to 0"4, 
female 10 to 1T7 nun. 

In the adults the antennas are black, with eleventh and twelfth, or twelfth 
and thirteenth segments either dark brown or buffy brown. In the immature 
condition these annuli are much more conspicuous, pale buff. 

Ax'Kcmmx k. 
Allodahlia macropyga (Westwood). 
1830. Forficula macropyga Westwood, in Royle, Qlustr. Bot. Nat. Hist. 
Himalaya Mts.. Vol. I. p. LIU, Vol. II. PL IX. fig. 12. [ r, 9 ; (by inference) 
Himalayas or India. | 

1 Jour. Soft Bengal (N. 8.), VII. p. 791. 



224 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

kulu Valley Kangra, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), one male, four females 
[Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge]. 

Vmballa, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), one male, one female [Hebarcl Collec- 
tion). 

Ramearh, Kumaon Hills, North-Western Provinces, 6,000 feet, 21st to 26th 

■"" ) 

August L918 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), six males, five females. 

Masuri, United Provinces, 7,000 feet, October 1906 (H. M. Lefroy), 

one juv. 

Four males have the specialization of the forceps less decided than is 

normal for the species, this being very pronounced in one of these specimens. 

Aneckura stoliczhai Burr. (Plate XX, figures 19 and 20.) 

1911. Aneckura stoliczhai Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), VII, 
p. 792. [ 6 , 9 ; Bashahr, Upper Sutlej District, Northern India.] 

Kulu, Kangra, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), one male, four females [Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge and Hebard Collection]. 

Jallore Pass, Kulu, Kangra, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), one male [Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge]. 

Burr has described the macrolabic condition. The brachylabic male 
before us not only has very different forceps, but the ultimate tergite has its 
surface much less specialized distad, while the pygidium is modified and con- 
cealed by the much heavier proximo-internal projections of the forceps. 

Length of body 1 , male 13'5 to 13*5, female 12 to 13; length of pronotum, 
male 1'84 to 1"63, female 1'53 to 1*7 ; greatest width of pronotum, male 2*38 
to 2-31, female 2-04 to 2'32 ; length of tegmen, male 3'46 to 3"5, female 3"4 to 
3 - 74 ; length of exposed portion of wing, male 1"97 to 1*77, female T77 to 1*86 ; 
length of forceps, male 3*4 to 7'6 ; female 3*6 to 4*9 mm. 

The general coloration is blackish chestnut brown, the abdomen meso- 
proximad and distad and the forceps being rich chestnut. 

The general facies of this insect is very different from that of the other 
known Indian species of the genus. 

Forficulin^e. 
Elaunon bipartitns (Kirby). 

1891. Spkingolabis bipartitns Kirby, Jour. Linn. Soc. Zool., XXIIT, 
p. 526. [d, 9; India.] 

Hie present material is dried after immersion in alcohol and the body length can, in 
nsequence, only be estimated. In these measurements those for the brachylabic male are 
'iven first. 



MORGAN IIEBARD 225 

Coimbatore, Madras ['residency, 1 Itli February 1914 (C. S. Misra), 
one male. 

In this specimen the fourth antenna) segmenl is about twice as long as 
wide ;iud slightly shorter than the third. Burr lias discussed this segmenl 
in his original description of the genus, 1 but has described it later as "trans- 
verse," through a lapsus calami. 2 

Length of body 8*8, length of pronotum P2, greatest width of pronotum 
L'36, length of tegmen 3'35, length of exposed portion of wing 1*5, greatesl 
width of abdomen 2'18, length of forceps 3*2 mm. 

Forjicula schlagintweiti (Burr). (Plate XX, figures 21 and 22.) 

190-1. Aneckura schlagintweiti Burr. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1904, 
I'- 313. [s , ?: Lahol, Tibet; Darjiling, Northern India.] 

1911. Forjicula beebei Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), VII, 
p. 795. [c?, 9 ; Phallut, Darjiling District (India), at 12,000 feet.] 

Eastern Nepal, April, 1910 (C. W. Beebe ; from seed pods of a red and 
yellow lily), two males, two females [Hebard Collection]. 

Rum Valley, Kangra, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), two males. 

Burr, in his discussion of beebei, states that the species is distinguishable 
from schlagintweiti by its lustre and the form of the male pygidium. The 
former feature is not to be relied on by itself and the pygidial difference we 
believe to be simply the adaptation of that segment to an Anechuroid type of 

forceps. 

Alter considering the other Indian species at hand, which show dimorphism 
in the male sex. and the material here recorded, we ate convinced that beebei 
is a synonym of schlagintweiti, based on the phase of thai species in which 
the male pygidium shows full and unrestricted development and the forceps 
an Anechuroid type. 

The description of schlagintweiti shows the males there considered to he. 
on the other hand, of the form in which the male pygidium is modified suffi- 
ciently to permit the development of a Forficuloid type of forceps. 

The gradation between these types of forceps in schlagintweiti had I 
previously noted by Burr. 3 

Of the present material, three males have the pygidium bidenticulate and 
the forceps Anechuroid, one of these and the two females lack wings. The 
other specimen, a male from Nepal, has the pygidium bluntly convex, the 

1 Trans. Enl. Soc. London, 1907, p. 123 (1907). 
3 Fauna Br. India. Dermaptera, p. 103 (1910) 
3 Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 1(3(3 (1910). 






STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 



Forficuloid and | es fully developed tegmina and wings. In this 

i men the proximo-internal tooth of the forceps is very large, with broad, 
Mat apex serrulate. 

Measurements {in millimeters). 





Mai.- 


Length of 
body 


Length of 
pronotuni 


Width of 
pronotuni 


Length of 
tegmen 


Exposed 
length 
of wing 


Length 

of 
forceps 














NEPAL. 


Forficuloid 


8-0 


1-3S 


1-70 


2-79 


1-22 


2 74 


Nepal. 


Anechuroid 


7-0 


1-04 


1-45 


2-06 




_ 2-58 


Km r. 


Anechuroid 


8-7 


1-22 


1-45 


2-18 


1-16 


2 79 


Ktjltj. 


Anechuroid 
Female — 


9-8 


1-36 


1-61 


231 


132 


3-20 


Nepal. 




7-8 


1-29 


1-58 


2-18 




218 


Nepai . 




8-0 


1-32 


1-70 


2-1S 




2-18 



The differences developed in the male forceps are shown by the accom- 
panying figures. Burr has discussed these in his descriptions, the references 
to which are given above. 

In tins species the caudal tibiae are heavy to the median point, whence 
they taper strongly to their apices. This is due to a conspicuous flattening 
of the dorsal surface in the area opposable to the caudal metatarsus. This is 
indicated, but to a lesser degree, on the median tibia?. We note a short dorso- 
distal flattening of the caudal tibia? in other species of the genus, but by no 
means the striking character shown by schlagvutweiti. 

Forficula lebo»gae, new species. (Plate XX, figure 23.) 

This species is related to F. schlaginiweiti Burr, but may be quickly 
distinguished by the nearly semicircular and weakly transverse pronotum ; 
generally somewhat less stocky build ; somewhat more slender antenna 1 joints 
and limbs, and slender, unspeeialized tibia?. Though of the same general 
type as developed in the Forficuloid condition of that species, the male forceps 
in lebongce are more evenly curved and show less flattening. 

Type : male ; Phoobsering, Lebong, Sikkim. Elevation 5,000 feet. 
October 1910 (H. M. Lefroy). [Hebard Collection, Type No. 781.] 

Size medium, form moderately robust. Head weakly convex, sutures 
obsolete ; caudal margin of occiput^ transverse, showing very faint concavity 



MORGAN HEBARD 227 

mesad. Eye oblique, three-quarters as long as cheek. Pronotum weakly 

transverse, nearly seiuieircular, curvature <if lateral and caudal margins 
strongest latero-caudad ; median section very feebly tumid in V-shaped area, 
lateral portions very feebly concave, cephalic angles rounded rectangulate. 
Tegmina and wings fully developed, smooth and shining, costal margin of the 
former sharply rounded, caudal margin transverse, truncate. Abdomen with 
glandular folds of third tergite very weak, of fourth tergite well developed ; 
surface strongly impresso-punctulate, this weak on proximal tergites. Ulti- 
mate tergite four times as wide as long, lateral margins weakly convergent 
caudad, surface weakly tumid distad above bases of forceps, weakly" concave 
between and on each side. 

Pygidium small and inconspicuous, directed ventro-caudad ; exposed 
face semicircular, smooth, but with a linear sulcus paralleling and just within 
the free margin ; apex ventrad, concealed. Forceps at immediate base with 
internal portion thickened into a very short flange, better described as a 
heavy, blunt tooth, the broad flattened apex of which bears a few minute, 
irregular, blunt denticulations ; arms there touching, from that area convex 
to the apices, so that in major portion they are rather strongly and evenly 
bowed. Penultimate tergite with free margins straight, convergent to the 
bluntly roimded apex. limbs slender and moderately elongate, caudal 
metatarsus equal in length to the two succeeding segments. 

Length of body 9"2, length of pronotum 1'24, greatest width of pronotum 
1*59, length of tegmen 2*31, dorsal width of tegmen 1'26, length of exposed 
portion of wing 1"43, greatest width of abdomen 252, length of forceps 2*74, 
length of margin of proximo -internal flange (or tooth) of forceps 0*36, length of 
caudal femur 2'24, length of caudal tibia 1*9 mm. 

Head and pronotum blackish brown, the sides of the latter paler. Tegmina, 
wings and sides of pronotum prout's brown, translucent and cinnamon brown 
when held to the light. Abdomen bay, the ultimate tergite, glandular folds 
and narrow proximal portions of other tergites darkened. Forceps in enlarged 
proximal portions bay, remaining portions blackish brown. Limbs bay, 
paling to buckthorn brown in distal portions. 
The type is unique. 

Forfi&tla heelzebvb (Burr). 
1900. [CMisocJies] heelzebuh Burr, Ann. Soc. Ent, Belgique, XLIV, p. 51. 
[ <? ; Kurseong, Bengal, India,] 

Kurseong, Bengal, (from 0. Leigh), twenty-one males, ten females, one 
juv. 

3 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Among the males, one lias the forceps deformed and lacking a proximo- 
internal flange ; another has the dextral arm only slightly over half as long as 
the sinistral arm and unspecialized ; while a third has the dextral arm very 
similar to the characteristic condition developed in the female sex. 

The present series does not show much individual variation, the extremes 
being as follows : length of body, male 95 to 11, female 12 - 2 to 13 ; length of 
pronotum, male 3 to 3'2, female 1*77 to 1*9; greatest width of pronotum, male 
2-13 to 23, female 2'48 to 2*5 ; length of tegmen, male 3 to 3 '2, female 3*33 to 
3*53 : Length of exposed portion of wing, male 1*18 to 1*6, female 1*5 to 1*56; 
Length of forceps, male 3*9 to 4, female 3 to 3*2; length of proximo-internal 
flange of male forceps 1*09 to 1*18 mm. 

Forficula acris (Burr). 

1905. Forficula acer 1 Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), I, p. 30. 
[tf; Mung Phu, Sikkim.] 

1905. Forficula celer Burr, Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal (N. S.), I, p. 31. 
[ tf , 9 ; Khasi Hills (Assam), India.] 

Kuln, Kangra, Punjab (M. M. Carleton), one female [Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge], 

Shillong, Khasi Hills, Assam, 5,000 feet, April to October 1916 to 1920 
(Fletcher and Eao ; four on apple blossoms and shoots, four on rose flowers), 
twenty males, seventeen females. 

Ramgarh, Kumaon Hills, North-West Provinces, 6,000 feet, 21st to 26th 
August 1918 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher), one female. 

The present large series from Shillong furnishes convincing evidence of the 
synonymy indicated above. Burr has described a macrolabic male as acer 2 
and a brachylabic male of the same species as celer. 3 

A single specimen from Shillong is strongly macrolabic. In this specimen 
the pronotum is appreciably more transverse, the pygidium decidedly more 
elongate and the forceps broader proximad and much more elongate, with 
proximo-internal flange terminating in a sharp tooth. From examination of 
the macrolabic and brachylabic phases developed in three other species of 
the genus before us, we find that the pronotum is normally slightly broader 
in the former than in the latter condition of the same species. 

This insect shows decided variation not only in size but also in coloration. 

1 Burr, later realizing that this name did not agree in gender with Forficula, changed it to 
acerus. The feminine of the Latin adjective acer is, however, acris. 

See Burr's discussion and figure, Fauna. Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 168, and PI. VII. 
fig. 57. 

8 Ibid., p. 172 and Pi. VII, fig. 60. 



MORGAN HEBAKD 



229 



Measurements (in millimeters) of specimens from Shillong. 



Length of 
body 


Length of 
pronotum 


Greatest 

width of 

pronotum 


Length of 
tegmen 


Length of 
exposed 
portion 
of wing 


Length of 
forcepw 


Length of 
margin of 
proximo- 
internal 
flange of 
forceps 


Male — 














7-8 


1-22 


1-50 


2-58 


M6 


3 24 


1-02 


7-9 


1-25 


1-50 


2-45 


1-16 


3-60 


116 


9-0 


1-46 


1-73 


2-70 


1-25 


3-60 


1*22 


100* 


1-52 


1-80 


2-92 


132 


4-70 


1-36 


10-7 


1-52 


1-80 


2-90 


132 


6-10 


163 


10-5 


1-50 


1-85 


2-92 


1-20 


7-60 


180 


Female — 














8-8 


1-34 


1-60 


2-55 


106 


2-86 


•• 


9*7 


1-40 


1-70 


2-79 


1-25 


300 


•• 



In this species the male pygidium is convex declivent, terminating in a 
brief horizontal flange, the apex truncate and, in the brachylabic phase, 
distinctly narrower than the horizontal distance occupied by the pygidium. 
In the macrolabic phase the pygidium is decidedly more elongate and propor- 
tionately more slender. 

Three males and one female have one of the arms of the forceps much 
shorter than the other, deformed, in the males lacking the proximo-internal 
flange. 

The majority of the series are shining blackish brown, the head and forceps 
slightly paler and more reddish, the tegmina and wings decidedly paler, sand- 
ford's brown, darkening gradually laterad and distad. In some specimens the 
head is as dark as the pronotum. 

The smallest male from Shillong shows a distinctive colour phase. The 
head is ochraceous tawny, the pronotum blackish brown and the tegmina and 
wings clay colour. The abdomen is chestnut brown proximad paling t<» hazel 
distad, with distal extremity blackish brown. The forceps are rich chestnut 
brown, the limbs dark. The Female from Kulu is an even more striking example 
of this contrastingly coloured phase, agreeing with the male except that the 



1 The majority of the males before us agree more nearly with this individual. 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

I, ,„] is light oohraceoua tawny, the tegmina and wings antimony yellow, with 
pronotum very narrowly marked with this colour laterad. 

Forficula interrogans Burr. 

1905. Forfimla interrogans Burr, Ent. Mo. Mag. (2), XVI, p. 85, 
( f ; Darjiling, India.] 

Kurseong, Northern Bengal (from C. Leigh), one male, six females. 

We are by no means satisfied that interrogans will not eventually prove 
to be a synonym of ylanicollis (Kirby) 1 . The present material fits decidedly 
more closely Burr's analysis of interrogans 2 than it does his discussion of 
planicoUis* and, without more material, we believe that we should therefore 
record it as such. 

Length of bodv, male 6*1, female 6 to 7'3 ; length of pronotum, male 1*1, 
female 1*09 to 1*15; greatest width of pronotum, male 1*39, female 1*34 to 
1-4 ; length of tegmen male 2*2, female 2' 13 to 2*24 ; length of exposed portion 
of wing, male 0*88, female 1*02 to 0'61 ; length of forceps, male 2, female 1*7 to 
1 -57, length of margin of proximo-internal flange of male forceps 0*54 mm. 

Opisthocosmiin m. 

Sadiya, new genus. 

This genus is erected to include the new species, 8. grata here described, 
and the African pcecilocera (Borg) 4 . It is nearest in relationship to Dinex 5 
Burr and Thalperus Burr 6 . 

These genera agree in having fully developed tegmina which lack keels, 
ultimate male tergite narrow, narrowing and sloping decidedly caudad, prono- 
tum approximately as broad as long and caudal metatarsus slightly longer 
than the combined length of the succeeding joints, though appreciably less 
than twice as long as the third joint. 

We agree fully with Burr in his definition of Opisthocosmia in its restricted 
sense. The genotype. 0. centurio Dohrn, may be readily distinguished from 

1 Described from a female from North India, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, XXIII, p. 525, 
(1891). 

1 Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 173, PI. VII, fig. 61. 

3 Ibid., p. 174. 

4 A male before us from the Belgian Congo, belongs to the Philadelphia Academy. Ori- 
ginally referred to the genus Ancistrogaster, Burr has assigned the species, with a query, to 
Opisthocosmia. 

5 Comparison is made with two males and a female of the genotype, D. americanus 
^Bonnans), from Guatemala and Panama.'in the Hebard Collection. 

9 Comparison is made with a male of the genotype, T. kuhlgatzi (Burr), from the Belgian 
Congo, in the collection jrf the Philadelphia Academy. 



MORGAN HEBARD 231 

Sadiya by its very large size, pronotum which is very much longer than wide 
(though it agrees in being narrower caudad than cephalad), the very elongate 
limbs and ultimate male tergite which is strongly transverse and scarcely 
narrows caudad. 1 

From Dinex the present genus differs in its more compact, less elongate 
form, head more evenly tumid (without a marked or extensive concave area 
mesad on the occiput), decidedly shorter antennal segments, pronotum with 
lateral margins convergent caudad throughout (not very weakly convex and 
convergent caudad only in caudal two-thirds), decidedly shorter limbs and 
caudal metatarsus decidedly longer than the last joint (not equalling that 
joint in length). In contour these genera agree very closely except for tin- 
general decidedly greater attenuation and more intricate specialization of the 
male forceps in Dinex. This similarity is particularly emphasized by the 
striking smallness of the pronotum, when compared with the size of the head 
and tegmina. 

From Thalperus the present genus differs in showing not even weak 
flattening, in the somewhat tumid head, more elongate antennal segments and 
proportionately decidedly smaller pronotum with greatest width cephalad and 
lateral margins convergent caudad (not feebly convex and sub-parallel). 2 

Though showing nearer a ffini ty to Dinex in general contour, Sadiya agrees 
with Thalperus in the greater number of characters which are used to separate 
the genera of tins sub-family. 

Genotype. Sadiya grata, new species. 

Generic description. Size small for the subfamily, form slender and 
showing no flattening. Head moderately tumid with sutures sub-obsolete. 
Antenna) with segments moderately elongate, fourth segment slightly longer 
than third. Pronotum very small, length approximating width, lateral 
margins convergent caudad so that the cephalic is distinctly greater than the 
caudal width, caudal margin convex. Tegmina and wings fully developed : 
the former broad, full and with dorsal surface weakly convex, lacking keels. 
caudal margin transverse, truncate. 

'We arc able to determine this from the following material of 0. ccnturio Dohrn, kindly 
loaned to us from the Burr Collection, by the British Museum : — 

Borneo (Freivaldsky), one male, see Plate XX I, figure 24. 

Padang Pandjang, Western Sumatra (from H. Rolle), one female. 

See also Bormans, Das Tierreich, XI, p. 95, fig. 36a, 6 and c, (19 ), and Burr, Gen. Ins., 
Dermaptera, Fasc. 122, p. 92, PI. IX, ags. 13, 13a and 136 (1911). 

2 For some unknown reason Burr lia.s placed the genus Thalperus in his key in the category 
in which the ultimate male tergite is transverse, rectangular and rather depressed, Gen. Ins., 
Dermaptera, Fasc. 122, p. 89 (1911). This is incorrect, as shown by the specimen of kuMgaizi 
before us. 



STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

Abdomen with Burface decidedly convex, glandular folds of second tergite 
small, oi third tergite very large, greatest width meso-caudad, ultimate tergite 
narrow, tapering and strongly declivent caudad in both sexes. Male forceps 
Bub-attingenl throughout, nearly straight, without large teeth ; female forceps 
more Blender and Btraight to the weakly incurved apices. Limbs moderately 
elongate, caudal metatarsus longer than combined length of succeeding joints, 
third joint appreciably shorter. 

Sadiya grata, new species. (Plate XXI, figures 25 and 26.) 
This handsome little insect is readily distinguished from S. pceeilocera 
(Borg) by its distinctive coloration and the unusual contour of the forceps. 

Type : male ; Sadiya, Assam, 21st to 25th May 1920 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher). [Hebard Collection, Type No. 777.] 

In addition to the characters given in the generic description, we note the 
following : Eye slightly longer than cheek. Head with caudal margin of 
occiput transverse, showing only a trace of emargination. Pronotum with 
cephalic angles rectangulate ; p>rozona moderately tumid, narrow lateral 
portions moderately reflexed ; lateral margins convergent caudad and almost 
straight, showing very w T eak convexity, rounding into the moderately convex 
caudal margin. Width of each tegmen slightly greater than greatest width of 
pronotum. 

Abdominal tergites very minutely tuberculose laterad, except ultimate 
tergite which is smooth and polished, weakly tumid above the forceps with 
area between impressed, its caudal margin showing very weak concavity mesad. 
Pygidium vertical, with caudal face produced as a small, bluntly conical 
projection. Forceps sub-attingent, showing a weak bisinuation with acute 
apices overlapping when in normal position ; dorsal surface weakly convex ; 
weakly flattened at ventro-internal margin in proximal third and supplied 
with very minute teeth, thence the internal surface is weakly longitudinally 
striate to the apex ; ventral surface deplanate proximad, becoming shallowly 
concave on internal half of distal portion. Penultimate sternite with caudal 
margin broadly convex. Third joint of caudal tarsus three-quarters as long as 
the metatarsus. 

Allotype : female ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection.] 
Agrees closely with male in ambisexual characters, differing as follows. 
Abdomen slightly heavier, the tergites only slightly roughened laterad, the 
ultimate tergite similar but with caudal margin mesad showing a narrower 
but stronger emargination, which is roundly obtuse-angulate. Pygidium 
similar. Forceps about as long as in male but decidedly more slender, separated 



MORGAN HEBARD 233 

by a brief interval and straight to the weakly incurved apices. Aims of 
forceps tapering rapidly from base to median portion, thence very slender and 
weakly tapering; roundly triquetrous in proximal portions, where the ventro- 
internal margin is very weakly sub-lamellate and sub-crenulate; ventral 
surface deplanate, longitudinally sub-striate, with margins weakly sub-cingu- 
late, particularly in the median portion. 

Length of body, male 7*2* to 8, female 8 to 8'2 ; length of pronotum, 
male 0"95 to 1*02, female 1*05 to I'll; cephalic width of pronotum, male 1*02 
to 1*12, female 1*16 to 1*09; caudal width of pronotum, male 0*95 to 1*02, 
female 0*98 to 0'95 ; length of tegmen, male 218 to 2*52, female 2*58 to 2*45, 
length of exposed portion of wing, male l'l to 1*36, female 1*29 to 1*16 ; width 
across tegmina, male 2*04 to 2*18, female 2*18 to 2*11; greatest width of 
abdomen, male 1*84 to 2*15, female 2*25 to 2*34; length of forceps male 272 
to 2-86, female 2*65 to 2*8 mm. 

Head, pronotum and abdomen (except laterad) kaiser brown, the pronotum 
apparently darker caudad, due to its translucence there and the darker colour 
of the tegmina beneath. The sides of the thoracic segments are blackish and 
the abdomen becomes blackish laterad, with the glandular folds black. 
Antennae mars brown with ninth or tenth (terminal 2 ) segment buffy. 
Tegmina chestnut brown, with a broad longitudinal paler area (antimony 
yellow in the type, tawny in the other specimens) extending caudad fully 
half the distance to the caudal margin. The outline of this marking is vague. 
Exposed portion of wings chestnut brown in internal half, antimony yellow 
in external half, the apex of the pale area roundly terminating and situated 
before the apex of the wing. Forceps in the males chestnut brown, paling to 
russet proximad and distad ; in the females russet. Underrjarts russet . 
Limbs immaculate, ochraceous tawny. 

In addition to the type and allotype, a paratypic pair are at hand, taken 
at Margherita, Assam, 14th to 19th May 1920, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

Prosadiya, new genus. 

This genus includes the single species, P. tricota, here described. In 
general appearance it resembles Sadiya, the forceps I" ing likewise unusually 
simple and straight for the subfamily, but longer and more slender, in thai 
respect showing closer similarity to Dinex. The pronotum in Prosadiya is, 

1 The measurements of the type malr and allotype female are given first, those of a para- 
typic pair last. 

-The antenna; may be incomplete in the three specimens before us showing the bully 
terminal segment. 



234 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

however, much larger in proportion to the body bulk than in those genera, 
in this feature showing closer agreement with Thalperiis. 

Nearest relationship is shown to Sadiya. These genera agree in general 
contour, in having fully developed organs of flight, tegmina without keels, 
ultimate male tergite narrow and narrowing caudad, pronotum approximately 
as broad as long and caudal metatarsus slightly longer than the combined 
length of the succeeding joints. 

The present genus differs from Sadiya in being decidedly hirsute, injiaving 
the frons moderately and lateral portions of occiput decidedly tumid and 
separated by deep sutures, the pronotum larger in proportion to the size of the 
head and with lateral margins weakly divergent caudad, ultimate male tergite 
sloping moderately caudad and caudal metatarsus distinctly less than twice 
as long as the third joint. 

Genotype. — Prosadiya tricota, new species. 

Generic description. Size small for the subfamily, form slender and 
showing no flattening, surface decidedly hirsute. Head with frons moderately 
and lateral portions of occiput decidedly tumid and separated by deep sutures. 
Antennae with segments moderately elongate for the subfamily, somewhat 
more elongate than in Sadiya, third segment approximating fourth in length. 

Pronotum medium small, length approximating width, lateral margins 
weakly divergent caudad so that the cephalic is appreciably less than the 
caudal width, caudal margin convex. Tegmina and wings fully developed ; 
the former moderately broad and with dorsal surface weakly convex, lacking 
keels, caudal margin transverse truncate. Abdomen with surface convex, 
glandular fold of third tergite minute, of fourth tergite large. Male forceps 
sub-attingent throughout, straight to the weakly incurved apices, without 
teeth. Limbs moderately elongate, caudal metatarsus longer than combined 
length of succeeding joints, third joint distinctly shorter than metatarsus. 

Prosadiya tricota, new species. (Plate XXI, figure 27.) 

Though superficially somewhat resembling Sadiya grata here described, 
the present insect is seen, on closer examination, to differ very widely in the 
generic features discussed above, as well as in the more elongate and slender 
male forceps, the strikingly bicolored head and different tegminal marking. 

Type : male ; Dibrugarh, Assam, 13th May 1920 (T. Bainbrigge Fletcher). 
[Hebard Collection, Type No. 778.] 

The following characters are important in defining the species, in addition 
to those given in the generic discussion : Eye slightly longer than cheek. 
Head with caudal margin of occiput transverse, showing only a trace of 



MORGAN HEBARD 235 

emargination. Pronotum with cephalic angles very slightly more than 
rectangulate ; prozona moderately tumid, lateral portions moderately reflexed, 
though not as much as in & grata ; lateral margins very weakly divergent 
caudad and almost straight, showing very faint convexity, rounding in'" the 
rather broadly convex caudal margin. Width of each tegmen appreciably 
less than least width of pronotum. 

Entire abdominal surface very minutely pitted, these tin- I >f very 

fine hairs which cover the entire insect and give it a fuzzy appearai these 
hairs being even more numerous on the abdomen than elsewhere ; ultimate 
tergite not as narrow and not as decidedly decliwnt caudad a- in S. grata, 
surface evenly convex except for twin, faintly concave areas meso-caudadj 
with a very short, longitudinal, median, impressed line proximad between 
these. 

Pygidium declivent, sloping ventro-caudad, narrow and fitting tightly 
between the arms of the forceps, with caudal face deplanate. Forceps attingent 
beyond the very narrowly separated bases, elongate, slender and straight to 
the very broadly incurved acute apices, which in normal position overlap ; 
simple and cylindrical except for a very low delicate, rounded ridge on the 
dorso -internal margin, which, directed meso-dorsad, runs from the basal fourth 
to near the base of the forceps. This ridge develops rapidly proximad. then 
weakens and disappears gradually distad, while the dorso-internal margin 
distad and the greater portion of the ventro-internal margin is defined by a wry 
fine raised line. Penultimate sternite with caudal margin broadly convex. 
Third caudal tarsal joint two-thirds as long as the metatarsus. 

Length of body 6*3, length of pronotum 112, cephalic width of pronotum 
1-02, caudal width of pronotum 119, length of tegmen 229, length of exposed 
portion of wing 112, width across tegmina T95, greatest width of al 
1'74, length of forceps 314 mm. 

Head with frons and mouthparts blackish chestnut brown, occiput 
cinnamon-rufous in sharp contrast. Eyes black. Pronotum with pr< 
cinnamon-rufous, the remaining lateral and caudal portions tra] 
yellow. Tegmina mars brown, with an oval spot of antimony yellow n 
proximad in the dorsal field. Exposed portion of wings antimony yellow, 
broadly suffused with mars brown in proximal half of sutural margin, this 
suffusion sub-obsolete beyond, but running diagonally to the external angle 
of the tip, where it again becomes distinct. Abdomen tawny proxii 

rapidly deepening to mars brown in distal portions. F | - ochraceous tawny, 

ventral surface slightly darker. limbs clear translucent bufly yellow. 

The type of this remarkable earwig is uniqu 



23G STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

PareparchMS pelvimeter, new species. (Plate XXI, figure 28.) 

Though small for the subfamily, this insect is very much larger than the 
genotype, P. minusculus (Bormans). 

Those species arc quickly distinguished from the other known forms of the 
Opisthocosrniinae by the comparatively short antennal segments, transverse 
and almost semicircular pronotum and transverse ultimate tergite of the male. 

Type : male ; Hansey Estate, Sanivarsandai, Coorg, India, 29th to 30th 
April 1913 (T. V. Ramakrislma Ayyar). [Hebard Collection, Type No. 780.] 

Size small for the subfamily, form slender. Head weakly convex, sutures 
sub-obsolete, caudal margin of occiput transverse, with only a trace of convexity 
on each side. Eye small, only three-fifths as long as cheek. Antennae with 
segments comparatively short, first as long as second, third and two-thirds of 
fourth, second quadrate, third slightly over twice as long as second, fourth 
as long as third, fifth decidedly longer and showing a decidedly pyriform 
tendency. 

Pronotum semicircular, distinctly broader than long ; prozona weakly 
tumid, other portions deplanate, except for the lateral portions, which are very 
weakly reflexed. Tegmina and wings fully developed ; the former without 
keels, with caudal margin transverse and showing very faint concavity. 
Abdomen slightly the widest meso-distad, almost parallel-sided ; glandular 
folds of third tergite very small and poorly developed, of fourth tergite represent- 
ed by low, rounded knobs ; surface impresso-punctulate, these weak dorso- 
proximad and very decided on the four distal tergites laterad. Ultimate 
tergite transverse, sloping moderately caudad, the lateral margins showing 
very weak convergence caudad ; surface impresso-punctulate but with four 
narrow longitudinal smooth areas, very weakly tumid distad at bases of forceps 
with caudal margin bluntly produced there, weakly concave between and on 
each side with caudal margin there weakly concave. 

Pygidium vertical, showing mesad a slight flexure ventro-cephalad, its 
surface smooth. Forceps showing an inward curvature at base, becoming 
attingent, thence evenly diverging to distal portions, which are curved inward 
so that the apices meet ; armed just beyond area of contact with a very large, 
blunt, dorsal tooth, which is directed dorso-caudad, with base strongly longi- 
tudinal. The arm is flattened dorsad in brief proximal portion before this tooth 
and rounded but showing a quadrate tendency in distal portions, due to a weak 
flattening of the internal surface and the very weak convexity of the dorsal 
surface. Surface of forceps with minute scattered impressed punctse, except 
on internal surface to beyond median point and ventral surface proximad, 
where minute tubercles occur, the ventro-internal margin armed with heavier 



MORGAN HEBARD 237 

minute blunt teeth along area of contact and with fewer small tubercles to 
beyond median point. Penultimate sternite with distal margin convex, 1 1 1 « • 
convexity strongest mesad, rather decidedly hirsute in distal portion. Limbs 
rather short and slender. Caudal metatarsus equal in length to third joinl 
and pilose ventrad, second joint strongly dilated. 

A paratypic male before us shows a more strongly macrolabic type. Tin: 
forceps are more elongate, with the large dorsal tooth, the small blunt ventro 
internal teeth and the minute tuberculations all more decided. 

Length of body 1 8'3 to 9 2 , length of pronotum 0'88 to I'll 
(cephalic) width of pronotum 1"18 to 1*1, length of tegmen 2'27 to 2"52, width 
across tegmina 1*9 to 2, length of exposed portion of wing 1*16 to II itesi 

width of abdomen 2'05 to 211, length of forceps 2*82 to 3"55, length of tooth 
of forceps 0'38 to 0*61 mm. 

Head, abdomen and forceps shining blackish chestnut brown. Antennae 
and tegmina dark chestnut-brown. Pronotum with prozona very dark, 
shining, chestnut brown, the lateral and caudal portions translucent honey 
yellow, caudad of the prozona tinged with brown. Exposed portions of wings 
honey yellow, rather broadly suffused about the free margins with brown, 
except at the proximo -internal portion of the apex. limbs bull, tin 
with tawny, the tibia? suffused with chestnut brown to near their apices, the 
caudal femora suffused with chestnut brown in proximal two-thirds. The 
median femora also show a trace of brown suffusion in proximal two-thirds. 
The paratype is similar in coloration, though slightly more recessive with 
proximal abdominal tergites becoming chestnut brown proximad and suffusions 
on the limbs weaker. 

In addition to the type, a paratypic male is before us, taken at Manantoddy, 
Wynaad, at 2,500 feet, on 16th November 1917 by Y. R. Rao. 

Eparchus inermis, new species. (Plate XXI, figure 29.) 

This insect agrees closely with E. insignis (Haan) in size, colour, pattern and 
form, except that in the male the abdominal tergites are unspecialized lai 
and the forceps are weakly bisinuate and entirely lack large teeth or projections. 
The individual at hand is also darker than any of the specin 
before us. 

The species in many ways resembles Narberia sim± Bormans) 3 , thai 

insect being larger, with pronotum longer than broad, the sidesof the fifth to 

1 The measurements of the type arc given i 

2 This specimen is distended. The length is, therefore, estimated. 

3 Described in 1SU4, later diagnosed by Burr, from material of the type a ri 
UypurgM simplex, Fauna Br. India, Dermaptera, p. 189, (1'JlO). 



L'38 STUDIES IN INDIAN DERMAPTERA 

eighth tergites recurved and sharp when seen from above and the forcep 
shorter. 

Type : male ; Shillong, Khasi Hills, Assam, October 1920 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher). [Hebard Collection, Type No. 779.] 

Size medium for the genus. Head with frons moderately tumid and 
showing two impressed points between the eyes, occiput with an irregular 
transverse impression meso-caudad as in insignis. Pronotum with length 
nearly equal to width, greatest width meso-cephalad, lateral and caudal margins 
very broadly convex ; prozona moderately tumid, with a medio-longitudinal 
linear sulcus and an impressed point mesad on each side, lateral portions 
moderately reflexed, caudal portion deplanate. Tegmina and wings fully 
developed ; the former much wider than the pronotum, lacking keels, full, 
with dorsal surface weakly convex and caudal margin transverse. 

Abdomen with surface very minutely punctulate, except ultimate tergite 
which is smooth ; glandular folds of third tergite medium, of fourth tergite 
large, the other tergites unspecialized, fifth and sixth increasing in width, the 
seventh, eighth and ninth decreasing more rapidly in width and telescoping 
as the abdomen rapidly narrows. Ultimate tergite as in insignis ; narrow, 
narrowing and decidedly declivent caudad, with surface tumid distad above 
arms of forceps and concave between. 

Forceps elongate and slender, arms weakly convergent until they touch 
proximad, thence curving very weakly and diverging until separated a distance 
slightly more than the width of one of the arms, where they curve broadly 
inward to the overlapping, acute apices. Arms cylindrical, with a sub-obsolete 
low rounded ridge along the ventro-internal margin proximad, with a median 
row of very minute, widely spaced denticulations along the internal surface and 
slightly thickened ventro-mesad toward the apex, this the vestige of the 
homologous tooth found in insignis. Penultimate sternite with caudal margin 
very broadly convex. Caudal metatarsus very elongate, third joint three- 
fifths as long as metatarsus. 

Length of body 9"3, length of pronotum 1/43, greatest (meso-cephalic) 
width of pronotum 1"54, length of tegmen 3 "2, dorsal width of tegmen 1*4, 
length of exposed portion of wing 1'56, greatest width of abdomen 2 - 92, length 
of forceps 6*1, length of caudal metatarsus T09, length of third caudal tarsal 
joint - 75 mm. 

Head, proximal antemial segments (the others are missing), pronotum 
and limbs shining blackish, showing scarcely a tinge of brown. Tegmina and 
wings blackish chestnut brown, the latter with a large meso-proximal spot of 
mustard yellow. Abdomen blackish chestnut brown, the tergites and sternites 



MORGAN HEBARD 

laterad and in meso distal portions almosl black. Forceps chestnul brown, 
except in thickened portion before theapex, which is blackish. 

The type is unique. 

Eparchiis insignis (Haan). 

18-42. Forficula insignis Haan, in Temminck, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Neder- 
landsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, Orth., p. 243, Ins. PI. 23, fig. 11. f J . 9; 
Java.] 

Phoobsering, Lebong, Sikkim, 5, 000 feet, Scpti'inlxT 11*10 (II. .M. Lefroy) 
one female. 

Pollibetta, Coorg, 24th October to 16th November 1915 (T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher), one male. 

Sidapur, Coorg, 7th August 1917 (Y. R. Rao), one female. 

Yercaud, Shevaroy Hills, Madras Presidency. 3,000 to 5,000 feet, 9th 
August 1917, (Y. R. Rao), one female. 

In the male only, of the present material, do the exposed portions of the 
wings show conspicuously the yellow proximo -internal spot and the line of the 
same colour along the sutural margin at the apex. 

Timomenus oannes (Burr). 

1900. Opisthocosmia oannes Burr, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VI, p. 85. 
[ <5 , Assam.] 

Shillong, Khasi Hills, Assam, 5,000 feet, 31st May to October 1916 to 1919 
(Fletcher and Rao), five males, four females. 

The wings of this very handsome species, when expanded, are seen to be 
deep chrome, suffused with black in the distal portions. 

Length of body, male 11*7 to 14, female 10"8 to 12 ; length of pronotum, 
male T56 to T77, female 1*65 to 1*7; greatest (meso-cephalic) width of prono- 
tum, male 1*77 to 1*97, female 1*9 to 1*88 ; length of tegmen, male 3*2 t 
female 3'5 to 3*55 ; length of exposed portion of wing, male 1*3G to ! male 

1*43 to 1*63 ; length of forceps, male 5 to 7, female 6'4 to 6*4 mm. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate XIX. 



Fig. 1. Diplatysbicoloripes, new species. Male, type. Nagpur, Central Provinces, 

India. Dorsal view, (x 6*66.) 
„ 2. Diplatys bicoloripes, new species. Male, type. Nagpur, Central Provinces, 

India. Ventral view of distal portion of abdomen and forceps. (Much 

enlarged.) 
„ 3. Paralabis greeni (Burr). Male, type. Pundalu-oya, Ceylon. Dorsal 

view of ultimate tergite and forceps. (Much enlarged.) 
„ 4. Paralabis castetsi (Bolivar). Male. Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, 

India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite and forceps. (Same scale as 

figure 3.) 
,, 5. Epilabis penicillata (Borelli). Male. Ootacamund, Nilgiri Hills, India. 

Dorsal view of ultimate tergite and forceps. (Same scale as figure 3.) 
„ 6. Epilabis penicillata (Borelli). Male. Ootacamund, Nilgiri Hills, India. 

Ventral view of penultimate sternite, showing its distinctive specializa- 
tion. (Much enlarged.) 
,, 7. Nala lividipes (Dufour). Male. Pusa, Bihar, India. Dorsal view of 

ultimate tergite and forceps. (Much enlarged.) 
„ 8. Nala lividipes (Dufour). Male. Haripur Hazara, North-West Frontier 

Province. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite and forceps. (Same scale 

as figure 7.) 
„ 9. Nala lividipes (Dufour). Male. Pusa, Bihar, India. Dorsal view of 

ultimate tergite and forceps. (Same scale as figure 7.) 
,, 10. Chcetospania Icurseongce, new species. Male, type. Kurseong, Northern 

Bengal, India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. 

(Much enlarged.) 
„ 11. Chcetospania hurseongce, new species. Female, allotype. Kurseong, 

Northern Bengal, India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium 

and forceps. (Same scale as figure 10.) 
,, 12. Chcetospania stiletta Burr. Male. Kodaikanal, Madras Presidency, 

India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Same 

scale as figure 10.) 

( 240 ) 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 24 I 

Fig. 13. Chcetospania stiletta Burr. Female. Kodaikanal, Madrat Pi ; l< i 

India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and force] (S ime 
scale as figure 10.) 

Plate XX. 

Ficr.14. Exypnus hoorgensis, now species. Male, type. Sidapur, Coorg, India. 
Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Much 

enlarged.) 
,, 15. Exypnus Jcoorgensis, new species. Male, paratype. Brachylabic condi- 
tion. Sidapur, Coorg, India. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygi- 
dium and forceps. (Same scale as figure 1 1.) 
.. 16. Proreus fletchcri, new species. Male, type. Goalundo to Gauhati, 

Brahmaputra River, Eastern Bengal, India. Dorsal view of ultimate 

tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Much enlarged.) 
,, 17. Proreus fletcheri, new species. Male, type. Goalundo to Gauhati, 

Brahmaputra River, Eastern Bengal, India. Lateral outline of distal 

antennal segments. (Greatly enlarged.) 
,, 18. Cranopygia pluto, new species. Male, type Chin Hills, Burma. 

Dorsal view, (x 3"3.) 
,, 19. Aneclnira stoliczkai Burr. Male. Kulu, Kangra, Punjab. India. 

Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Much 

enlarged.) 
„ 20. Anechura stoliczkai Burr. Male. Brachylabic condition. Jallore P 

Kulu, Kangra, Punjab, India. Dorsal view of ultima »ite and 

forceps. (Same scale as figure 1.) 
„ 21. Forficula schlagirntu-eiti Burr. Male. Anechuroid forceps. Eastern 

Nepal. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Much 

enlarged.) 
„ 22. Forficula scldagivhceiti Burr. Male. Forficuloid forceps. E 

Nepal. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and fore 

(Same scale as figure 21.) 
,,23. Forficula lehongac, new species. Male, type Phoobsering ' 

Siklrim. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and I 

(Same scale as figure 21.) 

Plate XXI 
Fig. 24. Opisthocosmia centurio Dohrn. Male. Borneo. Lateral view of distal 
portion of abdomen and forceps. (Much enlarged.) 
„ 25. "Badiya grata, new species. Male, type. Sadiya, \ .1' al view, 
(X 6-66.) 



'242 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 26. Sadiya grata, new species. Female, allotype. Sadiya, Assam. Dorsal 

view of ultimate tergite, pygidium and forceps. (Much enlarged.) 
„ 27. Prosadiya tricota, new species. Male, type. Dibrugarh, Assam. Dorsal 

view, (x 6'66.) 
„ 28. Pareparchus pelvimeter, new species. Male, type. Hansey Estate, Coorg, 

Indi<\. Dorsal view. ( x 6*60. ) 
„ 29. Eparchus inermis, new species. Male, type. Shillong, Khasi Hills, 

Assam. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite and forceps. (Much 

enlarged.) 



PLATE XIX. 




i : '^w 







8 













12 



10 



1 



PLATE XX 





15 




16 




21 



14 



17 




19 






22 



18 




20 



23 



PLATE XXI. 





i _«-. — - 




25 



27 




'■ 




29 





 

-, 




24 




28